Rev 08/03/2020

                    Belondiroidea Thorne, 1964

In a study of the muscular sheath surrounding the enlarged basal portion of the esopahgus, Hechler (1969) emended the description of the superfamily Belondiroidea (Thorne, 1964) as follows: "Esophageal expansion surrounded by a sheath of muscle bands which may lie parallel to the esophagus, spiral completely around it in a dextral or sinistral direction, or spiral slightly without completely encircling the esophagus". 

Nematodes of the superfamily Belondiroidea have worldwide occurrence and are mostly found in undisturbed natural habitats rather than cultivated soils (Ferris and Ferris, 1971; Naz, 2009).

Ref: Pena-Santiago, 2006.

Dorylaimid esophagi: some general chracteristics




Ferris, V.R. and Ferris, J.M.1971.  Distribution of Free-living Soil Nematodes of the Belondiroidea in Indiana and the United States. Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Sciences  81:365-369.

Hechler, H.C. 1969. Variability of the Basal Esophageal Sheath in Belondirid Nematodes. Journal of Nematology 1:160-165.

Pena-Santiago, R. 2006. Dorylaimida Part 1. Superfamilies Belondiroidea, Nygolaimoidea and Tylencholaimoidea. Pp 326-391 in  E. Abebe, István Andrássy, W. Traunspurger (eds) Freshwater Nematodes: Ecology and Taxonomy. CABI Publishing.

Thorne, G. 1964. Nematodes of Puerto Rico: Belondiroidea new superfamily, Leptonchidae, Thorne, 1935, and Belonenchidae new family (Nemata, Adenophorea, Dorylaimida). University of Puerto Rico Ag. Expt. Sta. Tech. Paper 39, 1-51.


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