Heterodera betae




Rev 11/25/2019

  Classification Hosts
Morphology and Anatomy Life Cycle
Return to Heterodera Menu Economic Importance Damage
Distribution Management
Return to Heteroderidae Menu Feeding  References
    Go to Nemaplex Main Menu   Go to Dictionary of Terminology



           Heterodera betae Wouts, Rumpenhorst & Sturhan, 2001    
Yellow Beet Cyst Nematode 
Back to Top

Morphology and Anatomy:

Cysts. Length (n=100): 857µm±162 (550- 1105); width (100): 518µm±106 (293-702); fenestral length (49): 52µm±6.0 (42-72.5); fenestral width (50): 38.0µm±6.8 (29.5-49.5); vulval bridge width (49): 4.8µm±1.3 (2.0-8.0); vulval slit length (49): 56.5µm±4.3 (48.5-67): vulvaanus distance, projection in horizontal plane of fenestra (51): 56µm±5.3 (44-69); underbridge length (70): 127µm±19.0 (97-170); underbridge width (70): 36µm±4.2 (30-48).

Eggs. Length (100): 135µm±7.9 (121-170); width (100): 53µm±5.3 (45-69).

Second stage juveniles. Length (50): 607µm± 19.6 (560-648); width at median bulb valve level (47): 20.7µm±0.73 (19.4-22.8); anterior end to valve median bulb (48): 92.7µm±4.5 (80.8-101.2); lip length (49): 5.7µm±0.32(5.2- 6.4); lip width (49): 11.3µm±0.41 (10.4-12.0); stylet length (49): 30.5µm±0.95 (28.8-32.0); stylet knobs height (49): 4.6µm±0.38 (3.8-5.2); stylet knobs width (49): 5.9µm±0.27 (5.2-6.6); tail length (46): 74.2µm±4.7 (64.4-82.0); hyaline tail length: 42.3µm±2.6 (36.0-47.6).

Data from Andersson, 1984.


Previously considered a biotype of H. trifolii.

Not easily distinguished morphometrically from H. schachtii apart from the cyst maturing through a yellow stage.  Readily distinguished by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (RFLPs) of the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) regions of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) (Amiri et al., 2002).

H. betae resembles he H. trifolii complex in the general morphology of the cyst and the shape of the fenestration of the vulval cone. It differs in its longer body and stylet and the more robust stylet knobs of the infective juveniles. It differs from H. rosii in that it infects sugarbeet, and has no males (Wouts et al., 2001).


Reported median body size for this species (Length mm; width micrometers; weight micrograms) - Click:



Back to Top


Coastal areas of Europe.  Also recorded from Lithuania and Sweden. Originally described from a population obtained from a sugar beet field near Karken, Germany (Wouts et al., 2001).

Back to Top

Economic Importance:

  Yield losses to sugarbeets in areas of sandy soil in the Netherlands

Back to Top



Back to Top


  Sugar beets, winter rape (Brassica napus), white mustard (Sinapis alba), red clover (Trifolium pratense), spinach, common hempnettle (Galeopsis tetrahit).

Barley is a non host. (Andersson, 1984)

For an extensive host range list for this species, click
Back to Top

Life Cycle:

Ecophysiological Parameters:

For Ecophysiological Parameters for this species, click If species level data are not available, click for genus level parameters

  Males absent, reproduction by parthenogenesis.


Back to Top


Forking of beets and other symptoms similar to those of H. schachtii.

Back to Top


Host Plant Resistance, Non-hosts and Crop Rotation alternatives:

For plants reported to have some level of resistance to this species, click
Back to Top


Amiri, S., Subbotin, S.A., Moens, M. 2002. Identification of the beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii by PCR. European Journal of Plant Pathology 108: 497–506.

Andersson, S. 1984. First record of a yellow beet cyst nematode (Heterodera trifolii) in Sweden. Växtskyddsnotiser 48:93-95.

Wouts, W.M., Rumpenhorst, H.J., Sturhan, D. 2001. Heterodera betae, sp.n., the yellow beet cyst nematode (Nematoda: Heteroderidae). Russioan Journal of Nematology 9:33-42.


Back to Top

Copyright © 1999 by Howard Ferris.
Revised: November 25, 2019.