Paralongidorus Siddiqi, Hooper and Khan, 1963
Large to very large nematodes, up to 12 mm.
Close to 100 species of Paralongidorus have been described.
However,there is much overlap in diagnostic characters and in the ranges of
morphometric data. Consequently, step-wise dichotomous keys based on
morphology and morphometrics have been difficult to construct. The
combination of molecular and morphological data will help resolve species
diagnostics (Palomares-Rius et al., 2013). Of course, molecular adata are
not currently available for many of the nominal species. A polytomous key,
where multuiple morphometric and morphological charaters are considered
simultaneously will be useful in this and other nematode genera. As an
example, Escuer and Arias (1`997) showed differences (and similarities) among 70
nominal species of Paralongidorus using a polytomous key.
Several species recorded from Asia and Africa, ocasionally from Europe; rarely from the Americas.
Actually, Paralongidorus appears to be distributed worldwide, occurring
on every continent with the exception of Antarctica.
The greatest biodiversity of the genus occurs in Asia, where 26 species
have been reported from several countries, followed by Africa with 22
reported species. In other continents the diversity of the genus is
lower: Europe, with eight reported species, Oceania with three species, and
North and South America with only one species each.. The species
distribution data are considered to support the hypothesis that the probable
origin of Paralongidorusis is in the region of South-East Africa to
India (Palomare-Rius et al., 2008).
pests in California Nematode Pest
Migratory ectoparasites of plant roots.
Relatively little critical biological and ecological work done on this
important genus - some species are difficult to work with.
Feeding causes direct damage to plant roots and some species are also vectors
of pathogenic plant viruses (Decraemer and Robbins, 2007).
Coomans A.A. and W, Decraemer, 2007. Revision of some species of the genus
Paralongidorus sensu Siddiqi et al. (1993), with a discussion on the
relationships within the family Longidoridae (Nematoda: Dorylaimida). Nematology
Decraemer, W, and Robbins, R.T. 2007. The who, what and where of
Longidoridae and Trichodoridae. J. Nematology 39:295-297.
Escuer, M. and Arias, M. 1997. Paralongidorus iberis sp.n. and
P. monegrensis sp.n. from Spain with a polytomous key to the
species of the genus Paralongidorus Siddiqi, Hooper & Khan, 1963
(Nematoda : Longidoridae). Fundamental and Applied Nematology 20:135-148.
Palomares-Rius, J.E., Subbotin, S.A., Landa, B.B.,Volvas, N., and
Castillo, P. 2008. Description and molecular characterisation of
Paralongidorus litoralis sp. n. and P. paramaximus Heyns, 1965 (Nematoda:
Longidoridae) from Spain. Nematology 10:87-101.
Palomares-Rius, J.E., Cantalapiedra-Navarette, C., Gutierrez-Gutierrez,
C., Liebanas, G., Castillo, P. 2013. Morphological and molecular
characterisation of Paralongidorus plesioepikimis n.sp. (Nematoda:
Longidoridae) from southerrn Spain. Nematology 15:363-378.