Panagrellus redivivus




Rev 11/09/2021

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Panagrellus redivivus (Linnaeus, 1767) Goodey, 1945


Chaos redivivum Linnaeus, 1767

Vibrio anguillula Miiller, 1773

Vibrio glutinus MiiIler, 1783

Anguillula rediviva (Linnaeus, 1767) Stiles & Hassall, 1905

Turbatrix rediviva (Linnaeus, 1767) Peters, 1927

Turbator redivivus (Linnaeus, 1767) Goodey, 1945

Gordius glutinus Oken, 1815

Rhabditis glutinus Dujardin, 1845

Leptodera oxophila Schneider, 1866

Cephalobus parasiticus Sandground, 1939

Neocephalobus leucocephalus Steiner, 1936

Turbator leucocephalus (Steiner, 1936) Goodey, 1943

Panagrellus leucocephalus (Steiner, 1936) Goodey, 1945

Anguillula silusiae de Man, 1913

Turbatrix silusiae (de Man, 1913) Peters, 1927

Turbator silusiae (de Man, 1913) Goodey, 1943

Panagrellus silusiae (de Man, 1913) Goodey, 1945


The taxonomic lineage of the nematode currently known as Panagrellus redivivus can be traced, through
numerous generic assignments and species synonymies, to the library paste nematode, Chaos redivivum, described by
Linnaeus in 1767. In a synonymy that has survived several reviews, the beer mat nematode, described by de Man in
1913 and 1914, is now considered to be the same as the library- or sour-paste nematode. In the absence of preserved
specimens of early material, and with the inadequacy of early descriptions of the organisms, the unifying thread for the
taxonomic lineage is the nature of the environments in which the nematodes have been found, primarily fermenting
pastes and beer-soaked fibres that might provide substrate for yeasts. Consequently, despite the precise rules that have
evolved for documenting changes in a binomial, and our ability to track those changes through the literature, there
must remain lingering uncertainty that Chaos redivivum and Panagrellus redivivus are the same nematode.


See an attempt to unravel the taxonomic chronology by Ferris (2009).

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Morphology and Anatomy:

Reported median body size for this species (Length mm; width micrometers; weight micrograms) - Click:


Panagrellus redivivus (Linnaeus, 1767) Goodey, 1945. A: head lateral view; B. head dorso-ventral view; C. female vulva region; D. male tail
(modified from Hechler, 1971)
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Biology and Ecology:



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Life Cycle:

Sexually reproducing, did not produce offspring in absence of males (Hechler, 1970, 1971).

Ecophysiological Parameters:

For Ecophysiological Parameters for this species, click If species level data are not available, click for genus level parameters
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Ecosystem Functions and Services:



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Ferris, H. 2009. The beer mat nematode: A study of the connectedness of scientific discovery. Journal of Nematode Morphology and Systematics 12:19-25.

Hechler, H.C. 1970. Reproduction, chromosome number, and post-embryonic development of Panagrellus redivivus (Nematoda: Cephalobidae). J. Nematol. 2:355- 361. 7.

Hechler, H.C. 1971. Taxonomic Notes on Four Species of Panagrellus Thorne (Nematoda: Cephalobidae). 3:227-237.

Linnaeus, C. 1767. Systema naturae. 12th Ed. 1:533-1327. Holmiae.


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Copyright © 1999 by Howard Ferris.
Revised: November 09, 2021 .