Rev 03/02/2021

  Classification Biology and Ecology
Morphology and Anatomy Life Cycle

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Halicephalobu Timm, 1956


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Morphology and Anatomy:

Photographs indicating characteristics of the genus are H. gingivalis

Short cylindrical stoma.  Long tapering corpus with no offset metacorpus.  Valve in postcorpus.  Female monovarial, prodelphic, ovary reflexed.
Tail conical but asymmetrical, shorter on ventral side.    
Body size range for the species of this genus in the database - Click:
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Commonly found in compost,  Also isolated from soil, plants, or moist organic-rich habitats.

 H. gimgivalis is an opportunistic parasite of horses and other equine species. 

Not as active as typical soil panagrolaims.


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Biology and Ecology:



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Life Cycle:

For Ecophysiological Parameters for this genus, click 
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Ecosystem Functions and Services:



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Interestingly, all Halicephalobus species tested appear to be resistant to anthelminthics, even those not associated with horses (Wim Bert, pers. comm.).

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Anderson, R.C., Linder, K.E., Peregrine, A.S. 1998.  Halicephalobus gingivalis (Stefanski, 1954) from a fatal infection in a horse in Ontario, Canada with comments on the validity of H. deletrix and a review of the genus.  Parasite 5:255-261.

Dunn, D.G., Gardiner, C.H., Dralle, K.R., Thilsted, J.P. 1993.  Nodular granulomatous posthitis caused by Halicephalobus (syn. Micronema) sp. in a horse.  Vet Pathol 30:207- 208.


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Copyright © 1999 by Howard Ferris.
Revised: March 02, 2021 .