Cactodera betulae




Rev 10/08/2023

  Classification Hosts
Morphology and Anatomy Life Cycle

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           Cactodera betulae (Hirschmann & Riggs, 1969) Krall & Krall, 1978

Transfgerred to new genus:: Betuladera betulse (Hirschmann & Riggs, 1969) Sturhan, 2002

      Heterodera betulae

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Morphology and Anatomy:


Female: Cyst stage present; circumfenestrate; eggs covered with tubercles.  


Male: Body twisted.  

Reported median body size for this species (Length mm; width micrometers; weight micrograms) - Click:


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Economic Importance:


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Nurse cell system: A syncytium.

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Birch, (Betula lenta, B. nigra, B. prndula, B. populifolia), Alder (Alnus glutinosa Gaertn.), and Cleome spinosa are good hosts.

Cucurbita moschata , Dactylis glomerata  and Lobularia maritima are moderate hosts.

For an extensive host range list for this species, click


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Life Cycle:

Ecophysiological Parameters:

For Ecophysiological Parameters for this species, click If species level data are not available, click for genus level parameters



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Host Plant Resistance, Non-hosts and Crop Rotation alternatives:

For plants reported to have some level of resistance to this species, click


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Baldwin, J.G., Mundo-Ocampo, M., McClure, M. 1997. Cactodera salina n.sp. From the estuary plant, Salicornia bigelovii, in Sonora, Mexico. J. Nematology 29:465-473.

Evans, K., Rowe, J.A. 1998. Distribution and economic importance. In S.B. Sharma (ed). The Cyst Nematodes. Kluwer

Subbotin, S.A., Mundo-Ocampo, M., Baldwin, J.G. 2010. Systematics of Cyst Nematodes (Nematode: Heteroderinae). Nematology Monographs and Perspectives Volume 8A , D.J. Hunt and R.N. Perry (eds) Brill, Leiden, The Netherlands 351p


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Copyright © 1999 by Howard Ferris.
Revised: October 08, 2023.