Cactodera torreyanae

 

Contents

 

Rev 11/19/2019

  Classification Hosts
Morphology and Anatomy Life Cycle

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Economic Importance Damage
Distribution Management

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Feeding  References

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Classification:

    Tylenchida
       Tylenchina
        Tylenchoidea
         Heteroderidae
          Punctoderinae


           Cactodera torreyanae Cid del PradoVera & Subbotin, 2014

 Synonyms:
     None

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Morphology and Anatomy:

.

Female: Cyst stage present; circumfenestrate; eggs without punctation or tubercules.  

 

Male: Body twisted.  

Reported median body size for this species (Length mm; width micrometers; weight micrograms) - Click:

 


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Distribution:

Dsecribed from saline soil on the campus of the Colegio de Postgraduados, Chapingo, Mexico.

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Economic Importance:

 

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Feeding:

Nurse cell system: A multinucleate syncytium.

A. Female body on outside of roots, with eggs retined.

C. Dissolution of cell walls during mycalium formation

E. Syncytium (S) obstructing phloem tissue (P). C = root cortex, E= root epidermis

 Photomicrographs from Evans et al (2015)

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Hosts:

Suaeda edulis.  The type host was originally lited as S. torreyana but then described as a new species, S. edulis.

 

For an extensive host range list for this species, click
   
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Life Cycle:

Ecophysiological Parameters:

For Ecophysiological Parameters for this species, click If species level data are not available, click for genus level parameters

 

The female body remains on the outside of the root and forms a cyst in which the eggs are retained. During the life cycle, none of the post-embryonic stages completely penetrate the host roots, so Evans et al. (2015) considered C. torreyanae to be a sedentary ectoparasite.  Alternatively, it could be described as a sedentary semiendoparasite.

Males emerge from the fourt stage cuticle and return to the soil.

Although the female exudes a gelatioous matrix, no eggs were obeserved in it.  However, males were observed trapped in the matrix which led to the hypothesis that the matrix may contain pheromones and that reproduction is sexual (Evans et al., 2015).

Photomicrographs of semiendoparasitic (ectoparasitic) location of all life stages (A: J2; B: J3; C::J4 female; D: J4 male; E and F: females.

(from Evans et al., 2015). 

 

Although females produce a gelatinous mass, all eggs seem to be retained in the cyst.  It is possible that the gelatinous mass contains a slow-release pheromone which acts as a sex attractant (Cid del Prado, pers. comm.).

 

Cactodera torreyanae female on root surface with associated gelatinous mass (Photograph by I. Cid del Prado).

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Damage:

Disruption of phloem tissues.

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Management:

Host Plant Resistance, Non-hosts and Crop Rotation alternatives:

For plants reported to have some level of resistance to this species, click

 

 

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References:

 

Cid del Prado Vera, I., and S. A. Subbotin 2014. new cyst nematode, Cactodera torreyanae sp. n. (Tylenchida: Heteroderidae), parasitising romerito, Suaeda torreyana, in Texcoco, Mexico. Nematology 16:163-174.

Evans, G., I Cid del Prado Vera, P Yanez-Jimenez, R Noguez-Hernandez. 2015. LIFE CYCLE OF THE CYST FORMING NEMATODE CACTODERA TORREYA CID DEL PRADO AND SUBBOTIN, 2014 AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH ITS HOST SUAEDA EDULIS FLORES OLV. & NOGUEZ. Nematropica 45:189-197.

 

 

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Copyright © 1999 by Howard Ferris.
Revised: November 19, 2019.