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& Birchfield, 1957
Type species of the genus: Hemicriconemoides
wessoni Chitwood & Birchfield, 1957
As of October 2003, the Zoological Record indicated 54 species names
associated with this genus. More recent data indicate 52 valid species (Van den
Berg et al., 2014)
(adapted from Dasgupta, Raski and Van Gundy, 1969)
The genus Hemicriconemoides was created to include those
species that did not fit well into the genera Criconemoides Taylor,
1936 or Hemicycliophora de Man, 1921.
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The common name "Sheathoid Nematode" for Hemicriconemoides spp.
is based on the loose, smooth outer cuticular sheath in adult females.
The sheath is attached to the nematode boy at the head and vulva.
Males and juveniles have only a single cuticle layer which, in juveniles, is
ornamented with rows of scales and spines. Sexual dimorphism isd strong with
males appearing smaller than females and having reduced feeding and genital
[Ref: Raski and Luc (1987); Van den Berg et al.. (2014).]
The type species is Hemicriconemoides wessoni
Chitwood and Birchfield, 1957 Goodey, 1963, originally collected from
Florida on Myrica cerifera (southern wax myrtle) (Dasgupta et al.,
Warm temperatures, flooding, and overwatering favor an increase of
sheathoid nematode population levels (Inserra et al., 2014)
in California Nematode Pest Rating System.
Hemicriconemoides wessoni causes damage to
turf grasses in Florida.
Feed as migratory ectoparasites, usually near root tip. Females of
H. strictathecatus in Florida are reported to
have semiendoparasitic habits; they are found partially embedded with the
anterior portion of their body inside the root to feed on cortical cell tissue
near the root tip. These females remained attached to the root even after the
removal of the soil particles that coated the root (Inserra et al., 2014).
Eggs, four juvenile stages and adults. Juveniles have a single cuticle,
ornamented by rows of scales and spines.
Many species of Hemicriconemoides are present in mixed
hardwood forests and natural areas, but their economic importance in agriculture
is largely undetermined. They have been found on golf courses showing nematode
feeding damage, but in these cases, there were many co-occurring nematode
species, so it was not possible to determine which species were responsible for
damage (Zhang et al., 2012).
Generally, although sheathoid nematode species cause decline of some
crops, most species are not considered aggressive parasites.
In Florida and in other countries, damage is documented for litchi, mango
(H. mangiferae), sugarcane, and tea
(Inserra et al., 2014).
Chitambar, J. J., Westerdahl, B. B., and Subbotin, S. A. 2018. Plant
Parasitic Nematodes in California Agriculture. In Subbotin, S., Chitambar J.,
(eds) Plant Parasitic Nematodes in Sustainable Agriculture of North America.
Sustainability in Plant and Crop Protection. Springer, Cham.
Dasgupta, D. R., Raski, D. J and Van Gundy, S. D. 1969. Revision of the
genus Hemicriconemoides Chitwood & Birchfield, 1957 (Nematoda:
Criconematidae). J. Nematol. 1: 126-145.
Geraert, E. 2010. The Criconematidae of the World. Identification of the
Family Criconematidae (Nematoda). Ghent, Academia Press. 615p.
Inserra, R.N., Stanley, J.D., Ochoa, A., Schubert, T.S., Subbotin, S.A.,
Crow, W.T., McSorley, R. 2014. Hemicriconemoides Species as Crop
Damaging Parasitic Nematodes in Florida. Nematology Circular No. 223 Florida
Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services., Division of Plant
McSorley, R., Campbell, C.W. and Goldweber, S. 1980. Observations on a
mango decline in south Florida. Proceedings of Florida State Horticultural
Society 93, 132-133.
Raski, D.J. and Luc,, M. 1987. Rev. Nematol. 10:409-444 (1987).
Scheck, H.J. 2021. California Pest Rating Proposal for
Hemicriconemoides spp. (Chitwood & Birchfield, 1957) Sheathoid
nematodes CDFA, Sacramento.
Van den Berg, E., Tiedt, L.R., Inserra, R.N., Stanley, J.D., Vovlas, N.,
Palomares Rius, J.E., Castillo, P., Subbotin, S.A. 2014. Morphological and
molecular charcterisation of some Hemicriconemaodes species
(Nematoda: Criconematidae) together with a phylogeny of the genus.
Whitlock, L.S. and A.E. Steele. 1960. Notes on Hemicriconemoides gaddi
from camellias in Louisiana and Georgia. Plant Disease Reporter 44: 446-447.
Zeng, Y., Ye, W., Tredway, L., Martin, S. and Martin, M., 2012. Taxonomy
and morphology of plant-parasitic nematodes associated with turfgrasses in
North and South Carolina, USA. Zootaxa, 3452(1), pp.1-46. Dasgupta, D.R., D.J. Raski and S.D. Van Gundy 1969. Revision of the genus
Hemicriconemoides Chitwood and Birchfield, 1957 ( Nematoda: Criconematidae).
J. Nematology 1:126-145.