Anatomy and Morphology




Rev. 01/01/20
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with lateral field


with lateral field and longitudinal striae


with longitudinal striae

Ascaridida with lateral field extended as longitudinal alae

From Maggenti, 1981

Leptoderan caudal alae of Hirschmanniella pomponiensis

Tylenchida - peloderan (extending to tail tip)

Peloderan and Leptoderan are terms introduced by Schneider (1866).

Order Tylenchida - leptoderan (anterior to tail tip)

Order Strongylida - peloderan with supporting rays Order Spirurida - arakoderan (completely surrounding cloaca, also with supporting rays)

Bursal rays are modified genital papillae and may have a supporting function in the strongylid bursa.

Bursa function in copulation:

Oesophagostomum sp. (A = male; B = female; C = bursa)

Cervical Alae:  Modified lateral alae in the anterior region of strongylids, ascarids and spirurids

Toxocara canis

Toxocara cati

Lateral alae may occur in males and females as lateral or sublateral extensions of the cuticle which may extend along body.
Occur in several taxa of ascarids and chromadorids.
In free-swimming nematodes, may aid in propulsion.

Lateral alae in Tripyla female and male. Photographs by Ignacio cid del Prado

Cuticular projections on the tail of some taxa.  Functioun unknown, but clumps of fungus are sometimes ensnared.

Common in suborder Aphelenchina.

Bursaphelenchus mucronatus:  mucro on tail tip

Laimaphelenchus sp. tail tip


Mucros on tails of males of Aphelenchoides sp.


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