Heterodera mani




Rev 09/27/2021

Ryegrass Cyst Nematode Classification Hosts
Morphology and Anatomy Life Cycle
Return to Heterodera Menu Economic Importance Damage
Distribution Management
Return to Heteroderidae Menu Feeding  References
    Go to Nemaplex Main Menu   Go to Dictionary of Terminology




           Heterodera mani Mathews, 1971

Grass cyst nematode; Ryegrass Cyst Nematode



Review general characteristics of the genus Heterodera.


Back to Top

Morphology and Anatomy:



Reported median body size for this species (Length mm; width micrometers; weight micrograms) - Click:

Back to Top


Reported from Europe: Belgium, Estonia, France, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, Slovakia, United Kingdom; Africa: South Africa; North America: United States (California, Washington) (Subbotin et al., 2010; Subbotin et al., 2018; EPPO, 2021)

First reported from perennial ryegrass, Lolium perenne, in Northern Ireland by Mathews (1971). The first official California record was  in June 1980 from a collection made of miscellaneous roadside grasses. (Scheck, 2021).

Back to Top

Economic Importance:

Q-rated pest in California Nematode Pest Rating System.  Proposed Rating as of November, 2021 is B-rating

Back to Top


Feeding site establishment and development typical of genus.

Back to Top


The genus Heterodera has been divided into ninegroups. H. mani is in the Avenae group and is part of the H. avenae complex. (Subbotin et al., 2010; Handoo and Subbotin, 2018). The species of this group parasitize only monocotyledonous plants.

Molecular markers based on the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the ribosomal RNA gene and, the cytochrome oxidase I gene can be used to differentiate species in this complex.

As of 2021, ten species in the H. avenae complex: H. arenaria, H. avenae, H. aucklandica, H. australis, H. filipjevi, H. mani, H. pratensis, H. riparia, H. sturhani, and H. ustinovi. Five species from this group are considered  pests of small grains and are collectively known as cereal cyst nematodes (CCN) (Smiley et al., 2017). The other species in the complex, including H. mani, parasitize grasses but not cereals, and are less important in agricultural production (Subbotin et al., 2018).

For an extensive host range list for this species, click


Back to Top

Life Cycle:

Ecophysiological Parameters:

For Ecophysiological Parameters for this species, click If species level data are not available, click for genus level parameters


Back to Top


The diagnostic symptoms of cyst nematodes are usually the presence of cysts on the roots, the proliferation of roots, and shallow, bushy root systems. Heavily colonized young plants are stunted, and their lower leaves are often chlorotic, forming pale green patches in the field. Mature plants are also stunted and have a reduced number of tillers. Their roots are shallow and have a “bushy-knotted” appearance, without necrosis or brown lesions. Plants produce smaller heads with shriveled grain kernels (Smiley et al., 2017).

In Europe, Mowat (1974) reported that H. mani had little effect on the yield of perennial ryegrass in pot trials. However, in field trials with higher inoculum levels, Maas and Brinkman (1977) reported considerable damage to spring-sown perennial ryegrass with an obvious reduction in growth of perennial ryegrass at the second cut in May which coincided with a mass invasion of the roots by second-stage juveniles.

No damage has been reported specifically from this species in California; however, golf courses and sports fields report nematode feeding damage as an important problem.

Back to Top


Host Plant Resistance, Non-hosts and Crop Rotation alternatives:

For plants reported to have some level of resistance to this species, click



Back to Top


Handoo, Z.A. and Subbotin, S.A. 2018. Taxonomy, identification, and principal species. In: Perry, R.N., Moens, M. and Jones, J.T. (Eds). Cyst nematodes. Wallingford, UK, CAB International, pp. 365-397

Maas, P.T. and Brinkman, H., 1977. Life cycle and pathogenicity of a grass cyst nematode, Heterodera mani, on perennial ryegrass in the Netherlands. Rijksuniversiteit Faculteit Landbouwwettenschappen, Gent.

Mathews, H. J.P. 1971. Two new species of cyst nematode, Heterodera mani n. sp. and H. iri n. sp., from Northern Ireland. Nematologica 17, 553-565.

Scheck, H.J. 2021. California Pest Rating Proposal for Heterodera mani Mathews, 1971 Rye grass cyst nematode . CDFA, Sacramento.

Smiley, R.W., Dababat, A.A., Iqbal, S., Jones, M.G., Maafi, Z.T., Peng, D., Subbotin, S.A. and Waeyenberge, L., 2017. Cereal cyst nematodes: A complex and destructive group of  Heterodera species. Plant Disease, 101(10), pp.1692-1720.

Subbotin, S.A., Mundo-Ocampo, M. & Baldwin, J.G. 2010. Systematics of cyst nematodes (Nematoda: Heteroderinae). Nematology Monographs and Perspectives 8A (Series editors: Hunt, D.J. & Perry, R.N.). Leiden, The Netherlands, Brill.

Subbotin, S.A., Toumi, F., Elekcioglu, I.H., Waeyenberge, L. and Maafi, Z.T., 2018. DNA barcoding, phylogeny and phylogeography of the cyst nematode species of the Avenae group from the genus Heterodera (Tylenchida: Heteroderidae). Nematology, 20(7), pp.671-702.

USDA Phytosanitary Certificate Issuance and Tracking System, Phytosanitary Export Database (PExD) Harmful Organisms Database Report. Heterodera mani. Accessed 8/31/2021

Back to Top