Heterodera orientalis




Rev 10/17/2023

Oriental Cyst Nematode Classification Hosts
Morphology and Anatomy Life Cycle
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Heterodera orientalis (Kazachenko, 1989) Mundo-Ocampo, Troccoli, Subbotin, Cid, Baldwin & Inserra, 2008.

 A member of the Afenestrata group of genus Heterodera.spp.

   Afenestrata orientalis Kazachenko, 1989   

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Morphology and Anatomy:

General Characteristics of the Afenestrata Group of Heterodera

Cysts lemon-shaped to rounded
Fenestration absent
Bullae absent
Underbridge weak or absent
Vulval slit long
J2 incisures 3 or 4
Monocotyledonous hosts

(Handoo and Subbotin, 2018; Subbotin et al., 2010, Subbotin et al. 2023)




  • Cyst stage present.  


  • Body twisted. 
  • Lateral field with four lines.
  • Spicules terminal, posteriorly directed, straight, distal extremity pointed; cloacal tube well developed.  
  • No phasmids.  

Reported median body size for this species (Length mm; width micrometers; weight micrograms) - Click:

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Heterodera (Afenestrata) orientalis, a cyst-forming nematode, was detected for the first time in the United States on 17 May 2005 in Escambia County, Florida on the roots of an ornamental grass, Miscanthus sinensis.  

It is possible that A. orientalis was introduced into other areas of the United States in shipments of infected Miscanthus, and misidentified because A orientalis, Heterodera bifenestra, H. cynodontis, H. cyperi and H. oryzicola infect grass and have similar juvenile and adult cyst morphologies.  

Source: Brian M. Spears, Ph.D.

Chair, New Pest Advisory Group


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Economic Importance:


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Nurse cell system: A multinucleate syncytium.


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Hosts of the Afenestrata group of Heterodera spp. are usually monocotyledonous plants.  Ornamental grass: Miscanthus sinensis var pupurascens and var zebrinus and Pennisetum setaceum var Rubrum (Mundo-Ocampo et al., 2008).

For an extensive host range list for this species, click
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Life Cycle:

Ecophysiological Parameters:

For Ecophysiological Parameters for this species, click If species level data are not available, click for genus level parameters



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Host Plant Resistance, Non-hosts and Crop Rotation alternatives:

For plants reported to have some level of resistance to this species, click



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Handoo, Z.A., Subbotin, S.A. 2018. Taxonomy, identification and principal species. Chapter 15 in Perry, R.N. Moens, M., and Jones, J.T.(eds)  Cyst Nematodes. CAB International.

Mundo-Ocampo, M., Troccoli, A., Subbotin, S.A., Cid, J.D., Baldwin, J.G., Inserra, R.N. 2008. Synonymy of Afenestrata with Heterodera supported by phylogenetics with molecular and morphological characterisation of H. koreana comb. n. and H. orientalis comb. n. (Tylenchida: Heteroderidae). Nematology 10:611-632.

Subbotin, S,A., Mundo-Ocampo, M., Baldwin, J.G. 2010. Systematics of Cyst Nematodes (Nematode: Heteroderinae). Nematology Monographs and Perspectives Volume 8B, D.J. Hunt and R.N. Perry (eds) Brill, Leiden, The Netherlands 512p

Subbotin, S.A., Roubtsova, T.V., Bostock, R.M., Maafi, Z.T., Chizhov, V.N., Palomares-Rius, J.E., Pablo Castillo, P. 2023. DNA barcoding, phylogeny and phylogeography of the cyst nematode species of the Schachtii group from the genus Heterodera (Tylenchida: Heteroderidae). Nematology (in press).

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Copyright © 1999 by Howard Ferris.
Revised: October 17, 2023.