Heterodera koreana




Rev 10/17/2023

Bamboo Cyst Nematode, Korean Cyst Nematode Classification Hosts
Morphology and Anatomy Life Cycle
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Heterodera koreana (Vovlas, Lamberti & Choo, 1992) Mundo-Ocampo, Troccoli, Subbotin, Cid, Baldwin & Inserra, 2008.

A member of the Afenestrata group of Heterodera spp.

  Afenestrata koreana Vovlas, Lamberti & Choo, 1992 


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Morphology and Anatomy:

General Characteristics of the Afenestrata Group of Heterodera

Cysts lemon-shaped to rounded
Fenestration absent
Bullae absent
Underbridge weak or absent
Vulval slit long
J2 incisures 3 or 4
Monocotyledonous hosts

(Handoo and Subbotin, 2018; Subbotin et al., 2010, Subbotin et al. 2023)




  • Body twisted. 
  • Lateral field with four lines.
  • Spicules terminal, posteriorly directed, straight, distal extremity pointed; cloacal tube well developed.  
  • No phasmids.  
  • No tail. 


  • Stylet 20 um long.  
  • Lateral field with four lines. 
  • Esophageal glands filling body cavity.  
  • Tail conical, pointed, with hyaline terminal portion half its length.  
  • Phasmids punctiform.  

[Ref: Luc, Maggenti & Fortuner, (1988).]


Reported median body size for this species (Length mm; width micrometers; weight micrograms) - Click:

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Atalodera koreana, was detected in Florida in fishpole bamboo, Phyllostachys aurea, propagated from plant material from the Far East.

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Economic Importance:


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Nurse cell system: A multinucleate syncytium.

The syncytium originated from an endodermal cells, pericyclic and phloematic vascular parenchyma and xylem elements. 

Syncytium cell walls thickened and have cell wall protuberances.

Internal walls of the syncytium perforated and fragmented.

Syncytia have enlarged nuclei and nucleoli.

Syncytia induced by Atalodera koreana in fishpole bamboo are similar those induced by Atalodera spp. and by Punctodera chalcoensis in corn.

Inserra et al. (1999).


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Hosts of the Afenestrata group of Heterodera spp. are usually monocotyledonous plants.  Edible bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens).

Fishpole bamboo, Phyllostachys aurea, is a new host record for Atalodera koreana.   

Reported from Phyllostachys pubescence, P. aurea, and P. nigra from South Korea and the United States, and P. nigra from Iran (Maafi and Taheri, 2015).

For an extensive host range list for this species, click
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Life Cycle:

Ecophysiological Parameters:

For Ecophysiological Parameters for this species, click If species level data are not available, click for genus level parameters



Both vermiform and swollen juveniles of Atalodera koreana have semiendoparasitic habits like the adult females.  Posterior of the body protrudes from the root surface. 

Females produced masses of up to 35 eggs. At the end of the life cycle, these females became light brownish cysts. 

All eggs hatched in moist (22%) soil at 22 C after 4 months.


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For plants reported to have some level of resistance to this species, click


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Handoo, Z.A., Subbotin, S.A. 2018. Taxonomy, identification and principal species. Chapter 15 in Perry, R.N. Moens, M., and Jones, J.T.(eds)  Cyst Nematodes. CAB International.

Inserra, R. N.; Vovlas, N.; Lehman, P. S. 1999.  Parasitism of fishpole bamboo roots by Afenestrata koreana. Nematropica 29:105-111.

Luc, Maggenti & Fortuner, Rev. Nematol. 11(2):159-176 (1988).

Maafi,Z.T., Zahra Majd Teri. 201 First Report of Korean Cyst Nematode, Heterodera koreana, Parasitic on Bamboo, Phyllostachys nigra, from Iran. J. Nematology 47:167-16

Mundo-Ocampo, M., Troccoli, A., Subbotin, S.A., Cid, J.D., Baldwin, J.G., Inserra, R.N. 2008. Synonymy of Afenestrata with Heterodera supported by phylogenetics with molecular and morphological characterisation of H. koreana comb. n. and H. orientalis comb. n. (Tylenchida: Heteroderidae). Nematology 10:611-632.

Subbotin, S,A., Mundo-Ocampo, M., Baldwin, J.G. 2010. Systematics of Cyst Nematodes (Nematode: Heteroderinae). Nematology Monographs and Perspectives Volume 8B, D.J. Hunt and R.N. Perry (eds) Brill, Leiden, The Netherlands 512p

Subbotin, S.A., Roubtsova, T.V., Bostock, R.M., Maafi, Z.T., Chizhov, V.N., Palomares-Rius, J.E., Pablo Castillo, P. 2023. DNA barcoding, phylogeny and phylogeography of the cyst nematode species of the Schachtii group from the genus Heterodera (Tylenchida: Heteroderidae). Nematology (in press).

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Copyright © 1999 by Howard Ferris.
Revised: October 17, 2023.