Longidorus breviannulatus




Rev 11/19/2019

Needle Nematode Classification Hosts
Morphology and Anatomy Life Cycle
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           Longidorus breviannulatus Norton & Hoffmann, 1975.

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Morphology and Anatomy:



 Longidorus breviannulatus female (photographs from Ye and Robbins, 2004).  

Females: L = 4-5.15 mm; a=94 (86-114) b=16.9 (12.3-23.8) V= 46.7 (43.1-50.2).

Reproductive systems diovarial, amphidelphic.

Odontostyle 83 (81-88) µm; odontophore 23 (21-26) µm

(Norton and Hoffmann, 1975).

Males are rare but have been reported (Ye and Robbins, 2004).
Male tail, spicules and supplements  (photographs from Ye and Robbins, 2004).  Male testis diorchic, with sperm (photograph from Ye and Robbins, 2004). 

Reported median body size for this species (Length mm; width micrometers; weight micrograms) - Click:

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Described from corn in Iowa and Illinois.

Usually found in soils with >49% sand and most damaging to corn in very sandy soils (>90% sand).

Host range appears to be restricted to graminaceous crops, including corn and sorghum, but more research is probably needed in this area (Malek et al., 1980),  The nematode has also been reproted associated with hardwood trees in Arkansas (Ye and Robbins, 2004).


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Economic Importance:

Losses up to 60% in infested corn fields

Good damage threshold numbers are established for corn in Illinois. One to five needle nematodes/100 cm3 soil can cause a moderate level of damage, whereas more than 25 can cause very severe damage (Niblack, 2003).


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Ectoparasite on roots.

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Poaceae, including corn, sorghum and cereals.

For an extensive host range list for this species, click


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Life Cycle:

Ecophysiological Parameters:

For Ecophysiological Parameters for this species, click If species level data are not available, click for genus level parameters

Found in upper 10 cm of moist soils but progressively deeper in the soil as the surface layers become dry (Malek et al., 1980).

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Damage threshold established at 1 nematode per 100 cm3 soil (Tylka et al., 2011). 1-5 nematodes/100 cm3 soil cause moderate ldamage, more than 25 cause severe damage (Niblack, 2003).

The nematode is reported to acquire Brome Mosaic Virus (BMV) from infected barley and transmit  the virus to healthy barley (Huff et al., 1987). However, that report has been questioned by other authors (Ye and Robbins, 2004).

Damage caused by L. breviannulatus to corn in Iowa.  Photographs from Norton (1983).
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Nematicides have been successful.  

Soybeans are a non-host.

Host Plant Resistance, Non-hosts and Crop Rotation alternatives:

For plants reported to have some level of resistance to this species, click


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Huff, D.E., Davis, R.F. and Myers, R.F.  1987. Longidorus breviannulatus as a vector for brome mosaic virus.  J. Nematology 19:143-145.
Malek, R.B., Norton, D.C., Jacobsen, B.J. Acosta, N. A  1980. New Corn Disease Caused by Longidorus breviannulatus in the Midwest. Plant Dis. 64:1110-1113.
Niblack, 2003. More Details on Corn Nematodes. Univ. Illinois Extension, 2003.
Norton, D.C. 1983. Maize Nematode Problems. Plant Dis. 67:253-256.

Norton, D.C. and Hoffmann, J.K. 1975. Longidorus breviannulatus n. sp. (Nematoda: Longidoridae) Associated with Stunted Corn in Iowa. J. Nematology 7:168-171.

Tylka, G.L., Sisson, A.J., Jesse, L.C., Kennicker, J. and Marett, C.C. 2011. Testing for Plant-parasitic Nematodes that Feed on Corn in Iowa 2000-2010. 2011 Plant Management Network. Plant Health Progress.

Ye, W. and Robbins, R.T. 2004. Distribution and Morphology of Longidorus breviannulatus Norton & Hoffman, 1975 and Longidorus fragilis Thorne, 1974 (Nematoda: Longidoridae) from North America. Journal of Nematology 36:220-231.

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Copyright © 1999 by Howard Ferris.
Revised: November 19, 2019.