(Neal, 1889) Chitwood, 1949
Peanut Root-knot Nematode
Reported median body size for this species (Length mm; width micrometers; weight micrograms) - Click:
Cosmopolitan in warmer regions of the world (Chitambar et al., 2018).
C-rated pests in California.
Feeding site establishment and
development typical of genus.
Type Host: Peanut (Arachis hypogaea).
Wide host range, including vegetables, peanut, grasses, fruit,
ornamentals, and tobacco.
Three races have described as follows: race 1 reproduces on peanut but not
tomato, race 2 reproduces on tomato but not peanut, and race 3 reproduces on
tomato and peppers, but not on peanut (Lï¿½pez-Pï¿½rez et al., 2011; Scheck,
Females of M. arenaria reproduce by mitotic parthenogenesis.
Eggs develop into a first-stage juvenile that undergoes one molt into
a second-stage juvenile while still in the egg. The second-stage juvenile
hatches and moves freely in the soil, penetrating plant roots just behind
the root cap. The juveniles migrate intercellularly towards the root tip and
then turn away from the root tip into the differentiating vascular tissues
where they induce a giant cell feeding site. Once it begins feeding,, the
nematode enlarges, loses mobility and , if developing into a female,
undergoes three more molts to the adult stage. Juveniles that develop
into males undergo a metamorphosis during the third development stage into
an elongated vermiform fourth stage which which matures and molts again into
an adult vermiform male. The male leaves the cuticles and the root system,
not feeding and probably not mating with females. (Scheck, 2022;
Triantaphyllou and Hirschmann, 1960).
Galling and stunting of host plant
roots; with above ground evidence of nutrient deficiency and wilting.
Causes damage to peanuts in
southeastern U.S. (e.g., large galls on roots, pegs, pods, and runners; reduced
75% of Japanese forest trees imported
into Brazil and planted in M. arenaria-infested soil died.
Nematode interacts with fungi in
disease complexes: Fusarium oxysporum infects wilt-resistant
tobacco in presence of M. arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica.
Similar increase in wilt incidence occurs in watermelon and tomato.
Peanut root, peg, and pod rot in
Florida involves M. arenaria and a series of soil fungi, including Pythium,
Rhizoctonia, Aspergillus, etc.
Use of M. incognita-resistant
tobacco varieties in North Carolina has resulted in selection for M. arenaria
- which is more pathogenic to tobacco than M. incognita.
Readily mover to new locations in infected roots,
bare root propagative material, and anything that moves soil including
containers, tools, equipment, machinery, irrigation water, and people. Long
distance spread occurs with contaminated nursery stock and other plant
material. (Chitambar et al., 2018).
are usually recommended for crops of higher value, i.e., peanuts, tobacco, and
have been useful in greenhouse ornamentals grown in Europe.
Host Plant Resistance, Non-hosts and Crop Rotation alternatives:
Sources of host-plant resistance have been
difficult to find. Populations able to overcome Meloidogyne
resistance in grape rootstocks are often identified as M. arenaria.
In tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) in Virginia, USA, the gene Rk1
provides resistance to Meloidogyne incognita races 1 and 3, and race 1 of M.
arenaria. The gene. Rk2 imparts increased resistance to M. javanica when
stacked with Rk1.
Combinations of Rk1 and Rk2 did not provide satisfactory resistance to M.
arenaria Race 2; however, Nicotiana repanda appeared to
provide some resistance to that race and may be a usfeul source of
resistance genes for tobacco (Adamao et al., 2021)
Adamo, N., Johnson, C.S., Reed, T.D., Eisenback, J.D. 2021. Reproduction of
Meloidogyne arenaria race 2 on flue-cured tobacco with putative resistance
derived from Nicotiana repanda. J. Nematology 53: DOI: 10.21307/jofnem-2021-064
Chitambar, J. J., Westerdahl, B. B., and Subbotin, S. A. 2018. Plant
Parasitic Nematodes in California Agriculture. In Subbotin, S., Chitambar J.,
(eds) Plant Parasitic Nematodes in Sustainable Agriculture of North America.
Sustainability in Plant and Crop Protection. Springer, Cham.
Scheck, H.J. 2022. California Pest Rating Proposal for Meloidogyne
arenaria (Neal) Chitwood, 1949. CDFA, Sacaramnto, California, USA.
Triantaphyllou, A.C, Hirschmann, H. 1960. Post-infection development of
Meloidogyne incognita Chitwood, 1949 (Nematoda: Heteroderidae). Annales de
l' Institut Phytopathologique, Benaki, 3:3-11