Meloidogyne ethiopica




Rev 08/30/2022

Ethiopian Root-knot Nematode Classification Hosts
Morphology and Anatomy Life Cycle
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        Meloidogyne ethiopica  Whitehead, 1968

Redescribed by Carneiro et al. (2004) on the basis of comparing the populations from Brazil with populations from Chile and Kenya identified as M. ethiopica (CABI International).


Based on molecular analysis, Meloidogyne brasiliensis is considered a junior synonym of M. ethiopica (Monteiro et al., 2017; Subbotin et al. 2021)

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Morphology and Anatomy:



  • Body vermiform, tapering anteriorly, bluntly rounded posteriorly.

  • Length variable.

  • Head high, rounded, continuous with body contour.

  • Stylet robust, knobs smooth, rounded–pear shaped and sloping backwards.

  •  Lateral field with four incisures, aerolated.

  • Metacorpus oval shaped, with large valve.

  • Excretory pore position variable, long excretory canal.

  • Sex reversal occurs and then males have two testes.

  • Spicules are thick with strongly ridged shaft, blade tip curved ventrally.

  • Gubernaculum distinct.

  • Tail short, phasmids at level of cloaca.

Source: CABI, 2013


Reported median body size for this species (Length mm; width micrometers; weight micrograms) - Click:


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Tropical species first reported by Whitehead (1968) in Tanzania. Discovered later in South America, including Brazil and Chile.

Also known from South Africa, Mozambique, Zimbabwe.


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Economic Importance:

Severe galling on grape roots in Chile; 65% of vineyard acreage considered infested.


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Feeding site establishment and development typical of genus. 

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Type Host: tomato (Solanum lycopersicum)

Grape, kiwi, potato.

For an extensive host range list for this species, click


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Life Cycle:

Ecophysiological Parameters:

For Ecophysiological Parameters for this species, click If species level data are not available, click for genus level parameters

Sedentary endoparasites.

Female body  ruptures root cortex and may  protrude with the egg mass on the root surface.   

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Host Plant Resistance, Non-hosts and Crop Rotation alternatives:

For plants reported to have some level of resistance to this species, click
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CABI 2013. Invasive Species Compendium.

Carneiro R.M.D.G., Randig O., Almeida M.R.A., Gomes A.C.M.M., 2004. Additional information on Meloidogyne ethiopica Whitehead, 1968 (Tylenchida: Meloidogynidae), a root-knot nematode parasitising kiwi fruit and grape-vine from Brazil and Chile. Nematology, 6:109-123.

Monteiro, J.M.S., J.E. Cares, V.R. Correa, J.B. Pinheiro, V.S. Mattos, J.G.P. Silva, A.C.M.M. Gomes, M.F.A. Santos, P..Castagnone-Sereno and R.M.D.G. Carneiro 2017. Meloidogyne brasiliensis Charchar & Eisenback, 2002 is a junior synonym of M. ethiopica Whitehead, 1968.. Nematology 19:655-669.

Subbotin, S.A., Palomares-Rius, J.E., Castillo, P. 2021. Systematics of Root-knot Nematodes (Nematoda: Meloidogynidae). Nemaology Monographs and Perspectives Vol 14. Brill, Leiden. 857p.

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Copyright © 1999 by Howard Ferris.
Revised: August 30, 2022.