Meloidogyne paranaensis




Rev 09/12/2022

Parana Coffee Root-knot Nematode Classification Hosts
Morphology and Anatomy Life Cycle
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           Meloidogyne paranaensis Carneiro, Carneiro, Abrantes, Santos, & Almeida. 1996



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Morphology and Anatomy:



Reported median body size for this species (Length mm; width micrometers; weight micrograms) - Click:

Second-stage juvenile

For over 20 years, M. paranaensis was mis-identified as M. incognita  until  morphological and molecular analyses established the new species (Carneiro et al., 1996).

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Brazil. One of 17 species of Meloidogyne reported on coffee.

M. paranaensis is currently reported in Central America and the Caribbean: Costa Rica, Guatemala, Martinique. Europe: France. North America: Mexico, United States (Hawaii). South America: Brazil, Colombia (CABICPC, 2021; Subbotin et al., 2021; Carneiro and Cofcewicz, 2008).

Meloidogyne paranaensis was first named and described in 1996 in the state of Paran�a, Brazil by Carneiro et al. Previously, it had been identified as a pathotype of M. incognita.  

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Economic Importance:

Meloidogyne paranaensis is an A-rated pest in California, USA.

Reported on coffee in Parana State, Brazil. Considered the most destructive nematode pest of coffee in Brazil.


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Sedentary endoparasite.

Feeding site establishment and development typical of genus.

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Type Host: Coffee (Coffea arabica), maintained on tomat (Solanum lycopersicum).

Its main economic host is coffee, where it is considered as one of the most destructive root-knot nematode species.

In differential host tests, tobacco, watermelon, and tomato were good hosts, whereas cotton, pepper, and peanut were nonhosts (Carneiro et al., 1996).

Hosts include tobacco, watermelon, tomato, soybean, and weeds.

Nonhosts include cotton, pepper, peanut, oats, corn, and a number of grasses.

For an extensive host range list for this species, click


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Life Cycle:

Ecophysiological Parameters:

For Ecophysiological Parameters for this species, click If species level data are not available, click for genus level parameters


Mitotic parthenogenesis; 3n chromosome number 50-52.

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In coffee, M. paranaensis does not cause typical root-knot nematode galls. Instead, the infection results in cracked cortical tissue on the taproot and necrotic spots along the roots, together with non-specific above-ground symptoms including chlorosis, leaf drop or plant death (Elling, 2013; Humphreys-Pereira et al., 2014).

Symptoms of Meloidogyne paranaensis parasitism in shoots and roots of coffee trees (Coffea arabica). a and b 1 and 8-year-old plants in Baixo Guandu municipality, Espirito Santo state, respectively. c and d Symptoms of thickening, splitting and cracking of the cortical root tissue
Plant Damage - coffee Root galls

Above ground, coffee plants will show different levels of general decline, reduced growth, nutritional deficiency symptoms, with leaf chlorosis, defoliation, and dieback.

Meloidogyne paranaensis does not produce the usual galls on the roots of coffee; rather it produces a syndrome called �coffee corky-root disease� with symptoms such as splitting and cracking of the cortical root tissue, especially on the taproot. Necrotic spots occur along the roots where the females are embedded, and nematode feeding probably causes the death of tissues around the giant cells (Carneiro et al., 1996; L�pez-Lima et al., 2015).


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Host Plant Resistance, Non-hosts and Crop Rotation alternatives:

For plants reported to have some level of resistance to this species, click


The nematode is easily spread and introduced on infected roots, bare root propagative material, and anything that moves soil including containers, tools, equipment, machinery, irrigation water, and people,  Long distance spread occurs with contaminated nursery stock.


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CABI Crop Production Compendium 2021. Meloidogyne paranaensis (Parana coffee root-knot nematode) Accessed 11/5/21

Carneiro, R.M.G.D., Carneiro, R.G., Abrantes, I.M.O., Santos, M.S.N.A., Alemeida, M.R.A. 1996. Meloidogyne paranaensis n. sp. (Nemata: Meloidogynidae), a root-knot nematode parasitizing coffee in Brazil. J. Nematology 28:177-189.

 Carneiro, R.M. and Cofcewicz, E.T., 2008. Taxonomy of coffee-parasitic root-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne spp. In Plant-parasitic nematodes of coffee (pp. 87-122). Springer, Dordrecht.

Chitambar, J. J., Westerdahl, B. B., and Subbotin, S. A. 2018. Plant Parasitic Nematodes in California Agriculture. In Subbotin, S., Chitambar J., (eds) Plant Parasitic Nematodes in Sustainable Agriculture of North America. Sustainability in Plant and Crop Protection. Springer, Cham.

Elling, A.A. 2013. Major Emerging Problems with Minor Meloidogyne Species. Phytopathology 103:1092-1102.

Ferraz, L.C.C.B. 2008. Plant parasitic nematodes of coffee in Brazil. In: Plant Parasitic Nematodes of Coffee (Souza RM, Editor). New York, NY, USA: APS Press & Springer, 225-248.

Humphreys-Pereira, D.A., Flores-Chavez, L., Gomez, M., Salazar, L. Gomez-Alpizar, L.E., Elling, A.A. 2014. Meloidogyne lopezi n.sp. (Nematode: Meloidogynidae, a new root-knot nematode.. Nematology 16:643-661.

 Lopez-Lima, D., S�nchez-Nava, P., Carrion, G., De Los Monteros, A.E. and Villain, L., 2015. Corky-root symptoms for coffee in central Veracruz are linked to the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne paranaensis, a new report for Mexico. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 141(3), pp.623-629.

Ferraz, L.C.C.B. 2008. Plant parasitic nematodes of coffee in Brazil. In: Plant Parasitic Nematodes of Coffee (Souza RM, Editor). New York, NY, USA: APS Press & Springer, 225-248.

Minaco, A.P.D.A., Carneiro, R.G., Kranz, W.M., Gomes, J.C., Scherer, A., Nakamura, K.C., Moritz, M.P. and Santiago, D.C., 2008. Rea��o de esp�cies de plantas daninhas a Meloidogyne paranaensis. Nematologia Brasileira, 32(4), pp.279-283.

Scheck, H.J. 2021. California Pest Rating Proposal for Meloidogyne paranaensis Carneiro et al. 1996 Parana coffee root-knot nematode. CDFA, Sacramento.

Subbotin, S.A., Rius, J.E.P. and Castillo, P., 2021. Systematics of Root-Knot Nematodes (Nematoda: Meloidogynidae). Brill. 857p.

Subbotin, S. A., and Burbridge, J. 2021. Report of the Parana coffee root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne paranaensis (Tylenchida: Meloidogynidae) from Caladium sp. in the continental United States. Journal of Nematology (Submitted)

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Copyright © 1999 by Howard Ferris.
Revised: September 12, 2022.