Golden & Birchfield, 1965
Rice root-knot nematode
Reported median body size for this species (Length mm; width micrometers; weight micrograms) - Click:
Important pest of rice worldwide. In India it is distributed throughout the
pest in California. Yield losses in rainfed lowland rice in India are
significant with losses up to 72% reported in sandy loam soils.
In irrigated rice it becomes established in the plant roots before
Feeding site establishment and
development typical of genus.
Type Host: Barnyard grass (Echinochloa colona).
First reported on grasses, then found on rice in Thailand, Bangladesh, India, and Laos.
Also in Brazil.
Nearly all varieties of rice are susceptible.
Two pathotypes of M. graminicola have been
recognized: one that can reproduce of rice culktivar BR11 and the other that
cannot reproduce on BR11. There are other diffences in host range for
populations from different regions (Subbotin et al., 2021).
The life cycle is very short for a roopt-knot nematode (15-19 days
at 27-37ï¿½C ) (Cabasan et al., 2013; Nguyen et al., 2914).
, 2013; Nguyen et al., 2914).
Migration of second-stage juveniles towards roots was similar in
susceptible and resistant rice cultivars indicating equal attractiveness of
the roots. However, the rates of penetration of roots and development
were lower in resistant than in susceptible cultivars. There were
fewer galls, females, eggs per g root and eggs per female in the resistanmt
than susceptible cultivars (Cabasan et al., 2012).
Causes galling of rice roots; a single plant may have up to 1,700 galls without showing signs of obvious stress.
Because of the very short life cycle (15-19 days at 27-37ï¿½C )
(Cabasan et al., 2013; Nguyen et al., 2914) a few
juveniles at planting can multiply into a huge nematode population within a
single crop season.
, 2013; Nguyen et al., 2914) a few
The galls formed by rice root-knot nematode are typically
hooked-shaped and at the root tip. The infected plants exhibitsevere growth
reduction, stunting, wilting, chlorosis, reduced tillering and unfilled
spikelets and poor yield.
With high infestations (12,000/v), leaves of rice seedlings become discolored and wilt. Subsequent yield is poor.
Of 100 rice varieties tested, one was resistant
and 11 were tolerant to infestation by M. graminicola.
Onion is also damaged by M. graminicola, especially when grown in
rotation with rice as in the Philippines (Gergon et al., 2002).
‘Yellow Granex 429’ onion with underdeveloped bulbs and short, galled
roots after inoculationwith root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne
graminicola. From Gergon et al., 2002.
Infestation is greatly reduced in flooded fields, but can be high in irrigated soils.
In general, use of nematicides is too costly on a field-wide basis, although nematicides can be useful in seedbeds.
Host Plant Resistance, Non-hosts
Resistance in rice cultivars is expressed in lower rates of penetration,
development and fecundity (Cabasan et al., 2012)
Cabasan, M., Kumar, A. & De Waele, D. 2012. Comparison of migration,
penetration, development and reproduction of Meloidogyne graminicola on
susceptible and resistant rice genotypes. Nematology 14:405-415
Cabasan M. T. N., Kumar A., Bellafiore S. and
DeWaele D. 2013. Histopathology of the rice root-knotnematode, Meloidogyne
graminicola, on Oryza sativa and O. glaberrima Nematol.,16:73-81
Gergon, E. B., Miller, S. A., Halbrendt, J. M., and Davide, R. G. 2002.
Effect of rice root-knot nematode on growth and yield of Yellow Granex onion.
Plant Dis. 86:1339-1344.
Nguyen P. V., Bellafiore S., Petitot A., Haidar
R., Bak A., Abed A., Gantet P., Mezzalira I., Engler J. and Fernandez D.
2014. Meloidogyne incognita - rice (Oryza sativa) interaction: a new model
system to study plant-root-knot nematode interactions in monocotyledons.
Subbotin, S.A., Palomares-Rius, J.E., Castillo, P.
2021. Systematics of Root-knot Nematodes (Nematoda: Meloidogynidae).
Nemaology Monographs and Perspectives Vol 14. Brill, Leiden. 857p.
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