Paratylenchus bukowinensis  




Rev 02/13/2023

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           Paratylenchus bukowinensis Micoletzky, 1922

Type species of the genus; originally described from a single female. Additional details provided by Loof and Oostenbrink (1968)

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Morphology and Anatomy:

Small plant-parasitic nematodes, 0.4mm long. 



Ovary single, outstretched.   

Not described for this species

Reported median body size for this species (Length mm; width micrometers; weight micrograms) - Click:

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Type locality: Ukraine. Widespread in temperate regions of the world

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Economic Importance:

In  temperate regions this species can cause severe damage to plants in the families Apiaceae and Brassicaceae, including carrot, celery and cabbage (Brzeski, 1991; Majic et al., 2017; Schmidt et al., 2020).

A survey on plant-parasitic nematodes in organic vegetable production areas in Germany detected P. bukowinensis as the second most frequent species of te genus, after P. projectus (Hallmann et al., 2007).

Paratylenchus. bukowinensis  on carrot and parsley in Croatia caused similar root-forking symprtoms as those caused by Meloidogyne hapla, suggesting damage  to meristematic cells in the root tip.(Chalanska et al., 2017; Schmidt et al., 2020).


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For an extensive host range list for this species, click


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Life Cycle:

Ecophysiological Parameters:

For Ecophysiological Parameters for this species, click If species level data are not available, click for genus level parameters

Extensive studies on the life cycle and host range of P. bukowinensis in Europe were conducetd by Brzeski and colleageues in the 1970s (Brzeski, 1971; 1976; 1991).

P. bukowinensis appears to become physiologically active at 8C.  Based on that, Schmidt et al (2020) used 8C as the basal temperatude for degree-day accumulation in studying this species. In those studies, in experimental conditions of approx. 20�C, one generation of P. bukowinensis wwas completed in 3-4 weeks which comparable with the 23 days suggested by Brzeski et al. (1976) for one generation of the nematode feeding on cabbage.

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Paratylenchus. bukowinensis  on carrot and parsley in Croatia caused similar root-forking symprtoms as those caused by Meloidogyne hapla, suggesting damage  to meristematic cells in the root tip.(Chalanska et al., 2017; Schmidt et al., 2020).

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Host Plant Resistance, Non-hosts and Crop Rotation alternatives:

For plants reported to have some level of resistance to this species, click


Paratylenchus. bukowinensis appears to be unaffected by the granular contact nematicide fosthiazate (Nemathorin 10 G) (Chałanska  et al., 2017).  That may be beause the short life-cycle allows rapid recovery from the lethal effects of the nematicide.

Crop Rotation

Schmidt et al (2020) concluded that due to its relatively narrow host range, P. bukowinensis can be controlled by rotation with non-host crops, for example, from the families Poaceae, Fabaceae, Solanaceae or Asteraceae. In any case, susceptible Brassicaceae as cover crops should be avoided in vegetable production systems to prevent the build-up of damaging levels of the nematode.

Although population levels decline quite rapidly at first in the absence of a host crop, Brzeski (1991) noted that the nematode was still detectable in naturally infested fields after 2 years without host plants.

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Brzeski, M.W. (1971). Nematodes associated with cabbage in Poland V. Experiments with Paratylenchus projectus. Zeszyty Problemowe Postepow Nauk Rolniczych 121, 113- 119.

Brzeski, M.W. (1976). Paratylenchus bukowinensis. Descriptions of plant-parasitic nematodes, Set 6. Farnham Royal, UK, Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux.

Brzeski, M.W. (1991). Decline rate of Paratylenchus bukowinensis under non-host crops. Revue de Nematologie 14, 636-637.

Chałanska, A., Bogumił, A., Miszczak, A. & Zagibajło, K. (2017). Evaluation of the nematicide fosthiazate (Nemathorin 10 G) for the management of pin nematode Paratylenchus bukowinensis Micoletzky, 1922 in crop of celery Apium graveolens L. var. rapaceum (Mill.). Progress in Plant Protection 57, 56-60. DOI: 10.14199/ppp-2017-008

Hallmann, J., Frankenberg, A., Paffrath, A. & Schmidt, H. (2007). Occurrence and importance of plant-parasitic nematodes in organic farming in Germany. Nematology 9, 869-879. DOI: 10.1163/156854107782331261

Loof, P. A. A., and M. Oostenbrink. 1968. Redescription of Paratylenchus bukowinensis Micoletzky, 1922 (Criconematoidea). Nematologica 14:152-154.

Majic, I., Raspudic, E., Nje�ic, B., Kani�ai Sari, G. and Sarajlic,� A. (2017). [Va�nost plodoreda i bionematocida u suzbijanju Meloidogyne hapla i Paratylenchus bukowinensis u mrkvi i per�inu.] Glasilo biljne za�tite 17, 394-403.

Raski, D.J. 1975. Revision of the Genus Paratylenchus Micoletzky, 1922 and Descriptions of New Species. Part II of Three parts. J. Nematology 7 :274-295.

Schmidt, J.H., J.N. Seeger, K. von Grafenstein, J. Wintzer, M.R. Finckh, and J. Hallmann. 2020. Population dynamics and host range of Paratylenchus bukowinensis. Nematology 22: 257-267.
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Copyright © 1999 by Howard Ferris.
Revised: February 13, 2023.