(Thorne, 1928) Mulvey & Stone, 1976
Heterodera punctata Thorne, 1928
Cyst stage present. Body globose, spherical to
pear-shaped with short neck and no terminal cone.
Cuticle thick, with superficial, reticulate pattern;
subcuticle provided with punctation; D-layer present;
subcrystalline layer present, thick.
Vulva terminal; vulval slit less than 5 Âµm long,
surrounded by a circular circumfenestra; no perineal
papillae; no underbridge; no
Anus surrounded by circular (anal) fenestra.
Eggs retained in body (no egg mass).
Males: Body twisted.
field with four lines.
Spicules greater than 30 Âµm long, slightly curved,
distally pointed. No
Tail very short, rounded.
juveniles: Stylet less than 30 Âµm long.
glands filling body cavity.
Tail conical, to conical-effilated with long, hyaline,
Reported median body size for this species (Length mm; width micrometers; weight micrograms) - Click:
Fairly widespread in USA, Europe and Russia.
A parasite of cereals but is not usually reported to cause major crop loss.
Considered a fairly insignificant pest (Horne and Thames, 1966; Radice et al.,
1985). However, it has become established in at least 30 countries on 4
continents representing a diversity of climates. For example, it is present in
both Morocco and Iceland (Scheck, 2019).
Nurse cell system is a syncytium. Females feed as sedentary ectoparasites
on the roots of their host plants but males do not feed (Scheck, 2019).
Wheat and many grasses
Probably amphimictic.Female body retains eggs and becomes a protective
cyst. Cysts are a dark yellow or brown color.
In Poa annua, P. punctata develops from second stage
juveniles to immature white females in 21 days under greenhouse conditions
of 22-28ï¿½ C. Brown cyst containing eggs, new J2s appeared at 40 days.
Diapause was observed in that eggs did not immediately hatch, suggesting
that population increase is limited to a single generation each year (Radice
et al. 1985).
Above ground symptoms of Punctodera punctata parasitisdm are
consistent with other cyst-forming nematodes. They usually include increased
sensitivity to water stress, slower growth and wilting.
Punctodera punctata is usually found in locations where water is
abundant during its development, so if the host is not subjected to water
stres,s as on golf or sports fields, the plant usually remains symptomless
(Nischwitz et al. 2013a, b).
Host Plant Resistance, Non-hosts
Horne, C. W., and Thames, W. H. 1966. Notes on the occurrence and
distribution of Heterodera punctata. Plant Disease Reporter, 50:869-871
Luc, Maggenti & Fortuner, Rev. Nematol.
Mulvey R. H., Stone, A. R. 1976. Description of Punctodera matadorensis
n.gen., n.sp. (Nematoda: Heteroderidae) from Saskatchewan with lists of
species and generic diagnoses of Globodera (n. rank), Heterodera, and
Sarisodera. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 54(5):772-785.
Nischwitz, C., Skantar, A., Handoo, Z. A., Hult, M. N., Schmitt, M. E,
and McClure, M. A. 2013a. Occurrence of Meloidogyne fallax in North America,
and molecular characterization of M. fallax and M. minor from U. S. golf
course greens. Plant Disease 97:1424-1430
Nischwitz, C., Dhiman, C., Schmitt, M. and McClure, M. 2013b. Cyst
nematodes in golf course greens in the western United States. Annual
Conference of the American Phytopathological Society (Poster).
Radice, A. D., Myers, R. F., and Halisky P. M. 1985. Studies on the
hostr trange, biology and pathogenicity of Punctodera punctata infected
turfgrasses. Journal of Nematology 17:162-165
Scheck, H.J. 2019. California Pest Rating Proposal for Punctodera
punctata (Thorne, 1928) Mulvey & Stone, 1976. CDFA Sacramento, California,
Thorne, G. 1928. Heterodera punctata n. sp. a nematode parasite on wheat
roots from Saskatchewan. Scientific Agriculture, 8:707-711