Radopholus citrophilus




Rev 04/03/2021

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           Radopholus citrophilus

Regarded as a synonym of Radopholus similis.

Races or biotypes of R. similis have long been recognized, and, in 1984, the citrus and banana races were described as sibling species with different chromosome numbers (Huettel, Dickson and Kaplan, 1984. Proc. Helm. Soc. Wash. 51: 32-35).

Radopholus similis was considered the original banana race, a parasite of banana but not citrus. and R. citrophilus was designated the citrus burrowing nematode, a parasite of both citrus and banana.

Chromosome numbers of the sibling species were reported to differ: R. similis - n=4, R. citrophilus - n=5.  There is also evidence of reproductive isolation in mating tests.

The designation of the two species caused considerable consternation among regulatory nematologists in Florida who argued that not enough populations have been studied, and that routine separation was very difficult.

Radopholus citrophilus is currently considered a synonym of R. similis.

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Morphology and Anatomy:


See Radopholus similis


 Reported median body size for this species (Length mm; width micrometers; weight micrograms) - Click:

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Economic Importance:

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 Migratory endoparasite in all life stages.      

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For an extensive host range list reported for this species, click

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Life Cycle:

Ecophysiological Parameters:

For Ecophysiological Parameters for this species, click If species level data are not available, click for genus level parameters
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Host Plant Resistance, Non-hosts and Crop Rotation alternatives:

For plants reported to have some level of resistance to this species, click


Potential for spread in California


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Duncan, L.W. and E. Cohn. 1990. "Nematode parasites of citrus." Pp. 321-346, M. Luc et al. (eds.), Plant-parasitic Nematodes in Subtropical and Tropical Agriculture. Wallingford, England: CAB International.

Kaplan, D. T., M. C. Vanderspool, C. Garrett, S. Chang and C. H. Opperman. 1996. "Molecular polymorphisms associated with host range in the highly conserved genomes of burrowing nematodes, Radopholus spp." Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions. 9:32-38.

Kaplan, D.T. and J.H. O’Bannon. 1985. "Occurrence of biotypes in Radopholus citrophlus." Journal of Nematology. 17:158-162.

Huettel, Dickson and Kaplan, 1984. Proc. Helm. Soc. Wash. 51: 32-35.

Kaplan (Journal of Nematology, 1984, 1985)

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Copyright © 1999 by Howard Ferris.
Revised: April 03, 2021.