Xiphinema rivesi




Rev 02/04/2021

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Xiphinema rivesi Dalmasso, 1969
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Morphology and Anatomy:

Xiphinema rivesi is a member of the X. americanum group of morphologically very similar species.



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Economic Importance:

Xiphinema rivesi is damaging to citrus in Egypt, Pakistan and Iran,. Reported from grape in France, Spain, Portugal, Canada, USA (Washington State).

Also reported from apple, peach, raspberry, walnut) oak, hackberry, alfalfa, corn, cottonwood and potato in the United States (Wojtowicz et al., 1982; Hafez et al., 1992; Handoo et al., 2015).

Xiphinema rivesi is a vector of at least four North American nepoviruses including Cherry rasp leaf virus (CRLV), Tobacco ringspot virus (TobRSV), Tomato ringspot virus (TomRSV), and Peach rosette mosaic virus (PRMV) (Auger et al., 2009).


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Feeds at root tips causing swelling, stunting, and destruction of tips.

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For an extensive host range list for this species, click

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Life Cycle:

Ecophysiological Parameters:

For Ecophysiological Parameters for this species, click If species level data are not available, click for genus level parameters


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Host Plant Resistance, Non-hosts and Crop Rotation alternatives:

For plants reported to have some level of resistance to this species, click
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Auger, J., Leal, G., Magunacelaya, J.C. and Esterio, M. 3009. Xiphinema rivesi from Chile Transmits Tomato ringspot virus to Cucumber. Plant Disease 93:971.

Hafez, S.L., Golden, A.M., Rashid, F. & Handoo, Z.A. 1992. Plant-parasitic nematodes associated with crops in Idaho and eastern Oregon. Nematropica 22, 193- 204

Handoo, Z.A., I.K.A. Ibrahim, , D.J. Chitwood and A.A. Mokbel. 2015. First report of Xiphinema rivesi Dalmasso, 1969 on citrus in northern Egypt. Pakistan J. Nematology 33:161-165.

Wojtowicz, M.R., Golden, A.M., Forer, L.B. & Stouffer, R.F. 1982. Morphological comparison between Xiphinema rivesi Dalmasso and X. americanum Cobb populations from the eastern United States. Journal of Nematology 14, 511-516.

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Copyright © 1999 by Howard Ferris.
Revised: February 04, 2021.