Afrina sporoboliae




Rev 07/25/2022

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Morphology and Anatomy Life Cycle
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Afrina sporoboliae Barrantes-Infante, Schroeder, SubbotinMurray, 2018

Dropseed Gall Nematode

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Morphology and Anatomy:



  • Body very stout, tapering to both ends.
  • Lips offset from body contour, not striated.
  • Cuticle finely striated.
  • Stylet short.
  • Basal bulb (post corpus) large with long overlap of intestine.
  • Ovary reflexed twice, crustaformeria with 4 rows of 14 cells each.
  • Vulva a transverse slit with protruding lips.
  • Elongate post-uterine sac.\
  • Tail tapering to a fine point.


  • Body more slender than female.
  • Lip region not offset from body contour, flattened anteriorly.
  • Spicules curved ventrally, gubernaculum slightly curved ventrally.
  • Bursa extending to tail tip.
  • Tail with a small terminal mucro.

Ref. Barrantes-Infante et al., 2018



 Reported median body size for this species (Length mm; width micrometers; weight micrograms) - Click:


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Recorded from Idaho, USA forming seed galls in sand dropseed grass Sporobolus cryptandrus (Poaceae) (Barrantes-Infante et al., 2018)..

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Economic Importance:

Afrina sporoboliae small ovoid galls on stems, leaves and rarely in flower heads (Barrantes-Infante et al., 2018)


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Seed gall nematodes are quarantine pesets in many countries.

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Induces seed development into black galls.


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For an extensive host range list for this species, click

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Life Cycle:

Galls contain as many as 9 adults and numerous eggs and juveniles (Van den Berg, 1985).

Ecophysiological Parameters:

For Ecophysiological Parameters for this species, click If species level data are not available, click for genus level parameters
Second stage juveniles are the infective tyage
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Seed gall nematodes are frequently associated with bacterial pathogens of the genus Rathaybacter.  Afrina sporoboliae is potentially a vector of a new species of Rathayibacter that causwes bacterial head blight of Sporobolus cryptandrus..Most of the collections of sand dropseed galls collected in Idaho that were positive for Afrina sporoboliae also included light-colored seed galls tcontaining nearlyy pure cultures of a Gram-positive bacterium that were identified as Rathaybacter. (Barrantes-Infante et al., 2018)

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Host Plant Resistance, Non-hosts and Crop Rotation alternatives:

For plants reported to have some level of resistance to this species, click


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Andrassy, I. 2007. Free-living Nematodes of Hungary Vol II.Hungarian Natural History Museum, Budapest. 496p.

Barrantes-Infante, B.L.,Schroeder, B.K., Subbotin, S.A. and Murray, T.D. 2018. Afrina sporoboliae sp. n. (Nematoda: Anguinidae) Associated with Sporobolus cryptandrus from Idaho, United States: Phylogenetic Relationships and Population Structure. Phytopathology 108:768-779.

Brzeski, M. W. 1981. The genera of Anguinidae (Nematoda, Tylenchida). Rev. Nematol. 4:23-34.


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Copyright  1999 by Howard Ferris.
Revised: July 25, 2022.