Type species: Leptonemella cincta Cobb, 1920
Cuticle with fine but distinct striation.
Head capsule convex, surface smooth or
punctuated, well demarcated from annulated body cuticle.
Amphidial fovea latero-subterminal, small,
spirally coiled in 1.5 turns, loop-shaped or formed as a shepherdÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s
Pharynx very slightly swollen anteriorly.
Didelphic, ovaries antidromously reflexed, both
genital branches to the left of intestine.
Gubernaculum with or without dorsocaudal
Males of some species with stout postcervical,
preanal, and postanal subventral setae.
Ref: Armenteros et al., 2014
Marine nematodes in tidal sands and coral reefs.
Nematodes in the subfamily Stilbonematinae of the
Desmodoridae are associated with,
and feed on, dense coatings of sulfur-oxidizing chemoautotrophic
gammaproteobacteria with which they are apparently obligately symbiotic. The nematodes
inhabit environments with low oxygen availability and reducing conditions. Essentially,
the nematodes Ã¢â‚¬ËœfarmÃ¢â‚¬â„¢ their bacterial associates by migrating to ocean sediments
rich in hydrogen sulfide
Murfin, Dillman, Foster, Bulgheresi, Slatko, Sternberg and Goodrich-Blair2012;
Blaxter and Koutsovoulos, 2015).
The ymbiotic bacteria are
coccoid to short stick-shaped
Armenteros, M., Ruiz-Abierno, A., Decraemer, W. 2014. Taxonomy of
Stilbonematinae (Nematoda: Desmodoridae): description of two new and three
known species and phylogenetic relationships within the family. Zool; J. of
the Linnean Soc. 171-1-21.
Blaxter, M. and Koutsovoulos, G. 2015. The evolution of parasitism in Nematoda.
Parasitology 142: S26Ã¢â‚¬â€œS39.
Bulgheresi, S. 2011. Calling
the roll on Laxus
defense molecules. Symbiosis 55, 127Ã¢â‚¬â€œ135.
Chitwood, B.G. 1936. Some marine nematodes from North Carolina. Proc. Helmint.
Soc. Wash. 3: 1-16.
E., Dillman, A.
R., Foster, J.
M., Bulgheresi, S., Slatko, B.
E., Sternberg, P.
W. and Goodrich-Blair, H. 2012. Nematode-bacterium
symbioses Ã¢â‚¬â€œ cooperation and conflict revealed in the Ã¢â‚¬Å“omicsÃ¢â‚¬Â age. Biological
Bulletin 223, 85Ã¢â‚¬â€œ102.