Phylum Nematoda

							                                      Rev. 02/26/2024

   Class Chromadorea
                1. pore-like or slit-like amphid apertures vary from labial pores or slits to post-labial elaborate coils and spirals.
	2. cuticle usually annulated, sometimes ornamented with projections and setae.
	3. phasmids present or absent, generally posterior.
	4. esophagus usually divided into bulbs, with 3 to 5 esophageal glands.    
	5. excretory system glandular or tubular.
	6. female with one or two ovaries.
	7. caudal alae present or absent.                  
     Sub-class Chromadoria
Order:   1. Rhabditida (from Greek - rhabdos, a stick, for shape of buccal cavity)
Sub-order Rhabditina - microbivores in soil; vertebrate and invertebrate parasites.
                                  males with delicate rays in caudal alae.
                                  Rhabditis, Caenorhabditis, Cephalobus,
                                  Steinernema, Heterorhabditis, Acrobeles.
Superfamily 1: Bunonematoidea - bacterial feeders
Superfamily 2: Cylindorcorporoidea
Superfamily 3: Odontopharyngoidea - very muscular metacorpus and structured, glandular postcorpus.
Superfamily 4: Diplogastroidea - movable stomal armature; 3-part esophagus with muscular, usually valved metacorpus and glandular postcorpus; 
                               microbivores, insect parasites, predators, omnivores.                             
Superfamily 5:  Mesorhabditoidea - bacterial feeders
Superfamily 6:  Rhabditoidea - bacteria feeders
Superfamily 7:  Strongyloidea
                     adults are vertebrate parasites; juveniles feed on bacteria or are parasites of annelids/molluscs.
                     males with prominent rays in lobed caudal alae.
                     Ancylostoma (hookworm), Enterobius (pin worm)
Sub-order Tylenchina -            
Superfamily 1: Aphelenchoidea -early plant parasites?   Al have movable hollow stylet.  Hosts are Gymnosperms, ferns, ornamentals/nursery, fungi, insects.
                                    males with 6 rays in caudal alae and "rose-thorn" -shaped spicules.
Superfamily 2:  Tylenchoidea -  all have movable hollow stylet. Parasites of Angiosperms, (monocotyledons and dicotyledons), fungi. 
                                    males with at most 1 ray in caudal alae, blade-shaped spicule.
Superfamily 3:  Sphaerularioidea 
Superfamily 4:  Panagrolaimoidea - bacterial feeders
Superfamily 5:  Strongyloidoidea
Superfamily 6:  Cephaloboidea - bacterial feeders
Superfamily 7:  Criconematoidea -  all have movable hollow stylet. Parasites of plants
Superfaimy 8:  Myenchoidea
Superfamily 9:  Drilonematoidea - parasites of annelids and molluscs.
Sub-order Myolaimina
Superfamily 1:  Myolaimoidea
Sub-order Spirurina - wine-bottle esophagus, no valves, all animal parasites.
Superfamily 1:  Dracunculoidea -  Dracunculus medinensis (Guinea worm).
Superfamily 2(morphotype): Gnathostomatomorpha
Superfamily 3: Rhigonematoidea
Superfamily 4:  Thelastomatoidea
Superfamily 5:  Oxyuroidea
Superfamily 6:  Ransomnematoidea
Superfamily 7:  Camallanoidea - parasites of terrestrial and aquatic vertebrates, with copepods as obligatory secondary host.
Superfamily 8: Physalopteroidea
Superfamily 9:  Rictularioidea
Superfamily 10:  Thelazioidea
Superfamily 11:  Spiruroidea
Superfamily 12:  Habronematoidea
Superfamily  13:  Acuarioidea
Superfamily  14:  Filarioidea - parasites of terrestrial and aquatic vertebrates.  Stoma has a hook. Large nematodes.
                                 Wuchereria bancrofti  (elephantiasis),
                                 Onchocerca volvulus (river blindness), 
                                 Dirofilaria immitis (dog heartworm).
Superfamily 15:  Aproctoidea
Superfamily 16:  Diplotraenoidea
Superfamily 17:  Ascaridoidea
Superfamily 18:  Cosmocercoidea
Superfamily 19:  Heterakoidea -  intestinal parasites of vertebrates. mainly minor parasites of birds and fish and <2cm long, except in Ascaris.
                                  Ascaris, Toxocara canis (dog ascarid), Anisakis.
Superfamily 20:  Subuluroidea
Superfamily 21:  Seuratoidea
Order 2.  Plectida
Sub-order Plectina
Superfamily 1:   Leptoplaimoidea
Superfamily 2:  Plectoidea
Superfamily 3:  Ceramonematoidea
Superfamily 4:  Haliplectoidea
Order 3.  Araeolaimida - simple spiral or "shepherd's crook" amphid apertures, marine or brackish water. 
Sub-order Araeolaimina
Superfamily 1:  Araeolaimoidea
Order 4.  Monhysterida - amphid apertures spiral to circular. Funnel-shaped stoma, some have protrusible teeth. Generally with a
                              single gonad. Marine, brackish, freshwater, soil habitats. 
Sub-order Monhysterina
Superfamily 1:  Monhysteroidea
Superfamily 2:  Sphaerolaimoidea
Sub-order Linhomoeina
Superfamily 1:  Siphonolaimoidea
Order 5.  Desmodorida - amphid apertures are loops and spirals.  Setae along body. Mainly marine, some in brackish and freshwater. 
Sub-order Desmodorina
Superfamily 1:  Desmodoroidea
Superfamily 2:  Microlaimoidea
Order 6.  Desmoscolecida  Heavily ornamented and annulated cuticle.Somatic setae along body.
                                  Typically marine, some freshwater and soil.
Sub-order  Desmoscolecina
Superfamily Desmoscolecoidea
Order 7.  Chromadorida  spiral amphids - marine, freshwater, soil.  
Sub-order Chromadorina
Superfamily Chromadoroidea

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