Type species: Stilbonema brevicolle Cobb, 1920
Didelphic, ovaries antidromously reflexed, both
genital branches to the left of intestine.
Spicules paired, curved
Gubernaculum with or without dorsocaudal
Conspicuous precloacal supplements at level of
Ref: Armenteros et al., 2014
Marine nematodes in tidal sands and coral reefs.
Nematodes in the subfamily Stilbonematinae of the
Desmodoridae are associated with,
and feed on, dense coatings of sulfur-oxidizing chemoautotrophic
gammaproteobacteria with which they are apparently obligately symbiotic. The nematodes
inhabit environments with low oxygen availability and reducing conditions. Essentially,
the nematodes farm their bacterial associates by migrating to ocean sediments
rich in hydrogen sulfide
Murfin, Dillman, Foster, Bulgheresi, Slatko, Sternberg and Goodrich-Blair2012;
Blaxter, M. and Koutsovoulos, G. 2015)
Transfer ectosymbiotic bacteria among sulfidic and oxidized layers of
sediiment (Moens et al., 2014)
Armenteros, M., Ruiz-Abierno, A., Decraemer, W. 2014. Taxonomy of
Stilbonematinae (Nematoda: Desmodoridae): description of two new and three
known species and phylogenetic relationships within the family. Zool; J. of
the Linnean Soc. 171:1-21.
Blaxter, M. and Koutsovoulos, G. 2015. The evolution of parasitism in Nematoda.
Parasitology 142: S26-S39.
Bulgheresi, S. 2011. Calling
the roll on Laxus
defense molecules. Symbiosis 55:127-135.
Chitwood, B.G. 1936. Some marine nematodes from North Carolina. Proc. Helmint.
Soc. Wash. 3: 1-16.
E., Dillman, A.
R., Foster, J.
M., Bulgheresi, S., Slatko, B.
E., Sternberg, P.
W. and Goodrich-Blair, H. 2012. Nematode-bacterium
symbioses - cooperation and conflict revealed in the Omicsï¿½ age. Biological
Bulletin 223: 85-102.