Brzeski & Winiszewska-Slipinska, 1993
Type species Tripylella intermedia.
Synonymized from Paratripyla intermedia
The genera Tripylella Brzeski & Winiszewska-Ślipińska, 1993 and
Tripyla Bastian, 1865 (Tripylinae, Tripylidae, Enoplida, Nematoda) are both
diovarial and amphidelphic but are distinguished morphologically in the
configuration of whorls of anterior sensillae. Both genera have six circumoral
inner labial papillae, but in Tripyla the whorl of four cephalic setae is
well-separated and posterior to the whorl of six outer labial setae while in
Tripylella, the two whorls are very close together so that they appear as a
single whorl of six, usually longer, and four, usually shorter, setae.
The genus Tripylina Brzeski, 1963 of the Trischistomatidae also
has the outer labial and cephalic setae in a single whorl but the females
are monovarial, prodelphic (Andrassy, 2007; Cid del Prado et al.,
2010; and Cid del Prado et al., 2016).
Tripylella has a dorsal tooth and two subventral denticles.
outer labial and
cephalic setae are very close together so that they appear as a single whorl
of six, usually longer,
setae and four, usually shorter, cephalic setae.
In different species of the genus, the subventral
teeth are either anterior or posterior to the dorsal tooth and usually are
in a separate stomal chamber from the dorsal tooth.
The pharynx is uniformly cylindrical throughout its
length with slight enlargement in the latter portion associated with the
location of the pharyngeal glands.
About midway down its length the pharynx is
surrounded by the nerve ring.
The cardia at the base of the pharynx is enlarged
and comprised of six cells.
Female reproductive systems didelphic, amphidelphic.
The tail either tapers uniformly or is cylindrical
in the anterior region and then narrows abruptly.
The spinneret at the tail terminus emits
secretions of three caudal glands which provides adherence to substrates.
In species of Tripylella described thus far, males
are extremely rare. When present, they have a row of ventral supplements
extending anteriorly from the cloaca (Andrassy, 2007; Brzeski &
Species of the genus Tripylella are
reported from moist soil, mosses and aquatic habitats.
Caudal glands open through spinneret at tail tip.
Nematodes of the family Tripylidae are
generalist predators of small aquatic and soil organisms. Many authors have
commented on the freshwater and
wet soil in which these nematodes are found,
and on the nature of their prey based on observation of intestinal contents or
from behavior. Among the recorded prey, as reviewed and collated by Small
(1987), are nematodes, rotifers and protozoa (Cid del Prado et al., 2012).
Nematodes in the Tripylidae attach to soil particles or other substrate via
adhesive material extruded from the caudal glands through the spinneret. Thus anchored, the body
moves quite reapidly in water films, sometimes thrashing vigorously. This
behavior has at least three possible purposes: 1. to make tactile contact with prey
organisms, 2. to create currents that stir up the sediment and potential
prey organisms settled therein, and 3. to anchor the nematode in currents of
Interestingly similar attachment and feeding behavior occurs in other
nematode groups that, based on most characters, appear to be only
distantly related. For example, the generalist predators of the
Tripylidae are in the Class Enoplea, Subclass Enoplia, Order Enoplida, the
specialist predators of other nematodes in the Mononchidae are in the Class
Enoplea, Subclass Dorylaimia, Order Mononshida, while the bacterivorous
Plectidae are in the Class Chromadorea, Subclass Chromadoria, Order Plectida,
according to the phylogeny proposed by De Ley and Blaxter, (2002, 2004).
Regulation of opportunistic species through predation.
Andrassy, I. 2007. Free-living nematodes of Hungary (Nematoda, Errantia), II.
Hungarian Natural History Museum, Budapest, Hungary. 496 pp.
Brzeski, M.W. 1963. Nematode genera of the
family Tripylidae (Nematoda, Enoplida). Acta Zoologica Cracoviensia, 8: 295-308.
Brzeski, M.W. 1964. Revision der Gattungen Tripyla Bastian und Paratripyla gen.
n. (Nematoda, Tripylidae). Annales Zoologici, 22: 157-178.
1965. On the identity of Trischistoma Cobb and Tripylina Brzeski. Nematologica,
Brzeski, M.W. & Winiszewska-Slipinska, G. 1993. Taxonomy of
Tripylidae (Nematoda, Enoplia). Nematologica, 39: 12-52.
Butschli, O. 1873. BeitrÃƒÂ¤ge zur Kenntnis der
freilebenden Nematoden. Nova Acta Academiae Caesareae Leopoldino-Carolinae
Germanicae Naturae Curiosorum, 36: 1-144.
Cid del Prado, I.,
H. Ferris and S.A. Nadler. 2010.
Soil inhabiting nematodes of the genera
Tripyla from MÃ¯Â¿Â½xico and the
USA with descriptions
of new species. Journal of Nematode
Morphology and Systematics 13-28-49.
Cid del Prado Vera, I.,
Ferris, H., Nadler, S.A., Lamothe Argumedo, R. 2012.
Four new species of Tripylina Brzeski, 1963 (Enoplida: Tripylidae) from
MÃ¯Â¿Â½xico, with an emended diagnosis of the genus. Journal of Nematode
Morphology and Systematics 15: 71-86.
Cid del Prado-Vera, I., Ferris, H., Nadler, S.A. 2016. Five new species of the genus
Enoplida: Tripylidae). Zootaxa 4109(2):198-217
Cid del Prado-Vera, I., Ferris, H., Nadler, S.A. 2016. Five new species of the family
Trischistomatidae (Nematoda: Enoplida) from North and Central America, with
keys to the species of Trischistoma
and Tripylina. Zootaxa
Yeates, G.W., T. Bongers, R. G. M. De Goede, D. W. Freckman, and S. S.
Georgieva. 1993. Feeding habits in soil nematode families and genera—An outline
for soil ecologists. Journal of Nematology 25:315-331