Tripylella quitoensis




Rev: 11/19/2019

  Classification Biology and Ecology
Morphology and Anatomy Life Cycle
Return to Tripylella Menu Ecosystem Functions and Services
Distribution Management
Return to Tripylidae Menu Feeding  References
    Go to Nemaplex Main Menu   Go to Dictionary of Terminology



Tripylella quitoensis Cid del Prado-Vera, Ferris, & Nadler, 2016

Back to Top

Morphology and Anatomy:

Tripylella quitoensis Female (A.D). A. Entire body; B: Anterior end; C: Pharynx intestinal junction; D: Tail.

from Cid del Prado et al., 2016


  • Body C-shaped upon relaxation and fixation.
  • Cuticle 2 μm thick, with fine striations. Setae and pores present posterior to the cervical region, scattered along the body.
  • Head region rounded, 12-16 μm wide.
  • Inner labial papillae conical and very small; outer labial setae conical 1.8-2.9 μm long; cephalic setae small, <1 μm long and very difficult to see, separated from the outer labial setae by <1μm so that there appears to be a single whorl of six longer and four shorter setae.
  • Dorsal tooth is 9-16 μm from the anterior end and 1-3 μm posterior to the two subventral teeth; the dorsal tooth and subventral teeth are in the same stomal chamber.
  • Amphids caliciform, 7-8 μm from anterior end of the body.
  • Cervical setae absent.
  • Distance between base of pharynx and vulva 160-238 μm.
  • Cardia very conspicuous, 15-25 μm long and 15-26 μm wide, comprised of six cells, the anterior and posterior of medium size and the median cells larger.
  • Excretory pore not observed.
  • Female gonads reflexed, the anterior 36-118 μm long and the posterior 47-80 μm long. Vulva 226-292 μm anterior to the anus, without protruding lips and with very small oval cuticular structures.
  • Rectum 0.9-1.9 times anal body diameter, anus with protruding lips.
  • Tail cylindroid, narrowing abruptly at 54-64% of its length and ending in a spinneret 2-4 μm long.





Reported median body size for this species (Length mm; width micrometers; weight micrograms) - Click:



Back to Top


Type Locality and Habitat: Moss on trunk of tree, in the botanical garden, Parque La Carolina, Quito, Ecuador, 2779 m above sea level.

Collected by I. Cid del Prado Vera.

Back to Top


Nematodes of the family Tripylidae are generalist predators of small aquatic and soil organisms. Many authors have commented on the freshwater and
wet soil in which these nematodes are found, and on the nature of their prey based on observation of intestinal contents or from behavior. Among the recorded prey, as reviewed and collated by Small (1987), are nematodes, rotifers and protozoa (Cid del Prado et al., 2012).

Nematodes in the Tripylidae attach to soil particles or other substrate via adhesive material extruded from the caudal glands through the spinneret.  Thus anchored, the body moves quite reapidly in water films, sometimes thrashing vigorously.  This behavior has at least three possible purposes: 1. to make tactile contact with prey organisms, 2. to create currents that stir up the sediment and potential prey organisms settled therein, and 3. to anchor the nematode in currents of moving water.

Interestingly similar attachment and feeding behavior occurs in other nematode groups  that, based on most characters, appear to be only distantly related.  For example, the generalist predators of the Tripylidae are in the Class Enoplea, Subclass Enoplia, Order Enoplida, the specialist predators of other nematodes in the Mononchidae are in the Class Enoplea, Subclass Dorylaimia, Order Mononshida, while the bacterivorous Plectidae are in the Class Chromadorea, Subclass Chromadoria, Order Plectida, according to the phylogeny proposed by De Ley and Blaxter, (2002, 2004).

.Back to Top

Biology and Ecology:


Back to Top

Life Cycle:

Ecophysiological Parameters:

For Ecophysiological Parameters for this species, click If species level data are not available, click for genus level parameters

Back to Top

Ecosystem Functions and Services:

Back to Top


Back to Top


Brzeski, M.W. (1965): On the identity off Trischistoma Cobb and Tripylina Brzeski. Nematologica 11:449.

Cid del Prado, I., H. Ferris and S.A. Nadler. 2010. Soil inhabiting nematodes of the genera Trischistoma, Tripylina and Tripyla from México and the USA with descriptions of new species. Journal of Nematode Morphology and Systematics 13-28-49.

 Cid del Prado Vera, I., Ferris, H., Nadler, S.A., Lamothe Argumedo, R. 2012.Four new species of Tripylina Brzeski, 1963 (Enoplida: Tripylidae) from México, with an emended diagnosis of the genus.  Journal of Nematode Morphology and Systematics 15: 71-86.

Cid del Prado-Vera, I., Ferris, H., Nadler, S.A. 2016. Five new species of the genus Tripylella (Nematoda: Enoplida: Tripylidae). Zootaxa 4109(2):198-217.

Small, R.W. 1987. A review of the prey of predatory soil nematodes. Pedobiologia, 30: 179-206.

Copyright © 1999 by Howard Ferris.
Revised: November 19, 2019.