Anguina balsamophila




Rev 08/03/2020

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              Anguina balsamophila (Thorne, 1926) Filipjev, 1936

 Tylenchus balsamophila Thorne, 1926

Anguillulina balsamophila (Thorne) Goodey     

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Morphology and Anatomy:

Reported median body size for this species (Length mm; width micrometers; weight micrograms) - Click:

1. Adult female with somewhat obese body and very small stylet.
From Thorne (1926)
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From leaves of balsam root (Balsamorrhiza sagittata) and mule's ear (Wyethia amplexicaulis) in Utah and the Sierra Nevada mountains of California.  Also recorded from galls on sunflower (Helianthus annuus) leaves (Thorne, 1926; Goodey, 1948).


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Economic Importance:

D-rated pest in California Nematode Pest Rating System.

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a) cross-section of normal leaf, b) cross section of gall with indentation at point of entry.  From Goodey, 1948.

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The following are listed as hosts in various literature sources:

Balsamorhiza macrophylla Nutt., Balsam Root
Balsamorhiza sagittata Nutt., Balsam Root
Wyethia amplexicaulis, Mule Ears
Wyethia sp. Nutt., Mule Ears
For an extensive host range list for this species, click


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Life Cycle:

Ecophysiological Parameters:

For Ecophysiological Parameters for this species, click If species level data are not available, click for genus level parameters


Specimens in UCD teaching collection remain viable up to 3 years in dried leaf galls.

The nematode overwinters in galled leaf tissue, probably in the J4 stage.  In the spring, the juveniles enter the young leaves while they are still clustered in crowns.  They are thought not to be able to penetrate the leaves after petioles have formed. Several juveniles enter at a single point which may be evident as a depression.  Three weeks after entry, adults have developed and are producing eggs.  By mid-May the juveniles are 1mm long and in the J4 stage.  They do not develop further and become quiescent when the leaves become dry in July and August.  The leaves are crushed by the snow during the winter.

Galls project mainly from the lower surface of the leaf, 3-4 mm in diameter (Goodey, 1948).


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Causes leaf galls on Wyethia mollis (Mule Ears") and Balsamorrhiza sagittata (balsam root) in Sierras.

Galls on underside of leaf of Balsamorrhiza sagittata


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For plants reported to have some level of resistance to this species, click
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Goodey, J.B. 1948. The galls caused by Anguillulina balsamophila (Thorne) Goodey on the leaves of Wyethia amplexicaulis Nutt. and Balsamorhiza sagittata Nutt. J. Helminthol. 22:109-116.

Thorne, G. 1926. Tylenchus balsamophilus, a new plant parasitic nematode. J. Parasitology 12:141-145.

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Copyright © 1999 by Howard Ferris.
Revised: August 03, 2020.