Sugarcane Cyst Nematode
Heterodera sacchari Luc & Merny, 1963
is one of three species of the genus that comprise the "sacchari group"
The others are H.
leuceilyma and H. goldeni.
The three species have lemon-shaped cysts, are
ambifenestrate, and have finger-like
bullae projecting from the underbridge of
the vulval cone (Tanha Maafi et al., 2007).
According to our present knowledge,
is definitely present in tropical Africa,
is found in the middle east and
occurs in the subtropical south-east of North America. The
species identity of H.
sacchari records from other Asian countries, as well
as from Trinidad, West Indies, may need confirmation (Tanha Maafi et al., 2007).
The record from Trinidad
truncated, with 2 offset retrorse annules; weak cephalic
Weak stylet, 23-25 µm long, with small, rounded
Opening of the dorsal esophageal gland situated 4-5
µm behind the spear; procorpus
bulb with strong valve; short
Basal glandular part of the
Nerve ring encircling the isthmus.
pore situated 165-175 µm from the anterior
Cysts: Mature cysts brown to dark
brown, lemon-shaped with prominent vulval cone and neck
of medium size.
Cuticle with a lace-like pattern; numerous
perforations evenly but irregularly distributed on the
inner layer. Young cysts with a thick subcrystalline
Cyst cone ambifenestrate: fenestrae rather obscurely demarcated.
45-55 µm long and 35-45 µm wide.
slit 50-52 µm long, as long as vulval bridge;
underbridge strongly developed with finger-like
bullae: length = 100-150 µm; width 50-70 µm; depth
= 22-28 µm (Mulvey, 1972); few peripheral
distinctly annulated; annules 2.5 µm in the middle of
field faintly marked by 3 longitudinal
lines (=incisures) irregularly crossed by annules,
occupying 1/5 of the corresponding body width.
Lip region dome-shaped, with 4-5 (exceptionally 6)
annules, often anastomosed, without longitudinal striations; cephalic framework heavily sclerotized, with
outer margin conspicuously marked; cephalids
see, situated 2 and 6-7 annules behind labial
Spear stong, anterior and posterior parts of the same
length; knobs rounded posteriorly and with flat, sloping
esophageal gland opening situated 4 µm behind
Median esophageal bulb ovoid.
Dorsal gland short and wide with a large nucleus,
anterior to the subventral glands which are elongated and
narrow, and each with a small nucleus.
Nerve ring strongly marked, encircling the esophagus
just behind the median
pore situated 137-150 µm from the anterior
flat, 7-15 µm anterior to the excretory
pore and extending over one annule. Hemizonion
Testis single; spermatozoa 4-5 µm in diameter.
Spicules curved, notched at the tip; specimens with
abnormal atrophied spicules frequent (up to 20% of
specimens); exceptionally, three spicules were observed.
Spicular sheath present. Lamellate gubernaculum.
Tail 1/4 to 1/3 of the
cloacal body diameter. Phasmids
Second-stage Juveniles: Body straight
or slightly ventrally curved when heat-relaxed, slightly
tapering at the anterior end, more attenuated at the
Cuticle annulated; annules 1.7 µm wide in the middle
of body; lateral
field composed of 3 longitudinal lines,
not crossed by annules except in the fore-part and at the
level of the phasmids.
Lip region dome-shaped, with 3 annules; cephalic
framework heavily sclerotized.
Stylet stong, anterior part slightly shorter than the
posterior; knobs well developed, rounded posteriorly,
esophageal gland opening situated 5-8 µm
behind the spear
Median esophageal bulb ovoid, with strong valve.
Dorsal gland broad,anterior to the subventrals, with a
large nucleus. Subventral glands not completely filling
the body cavity, each with a small nucleus.
Nerve ring well defined, situated immediately behind
the median bulb.
Excretory pore104-130 µm from the anterior end. Hemizonid
immediately in from of the excretory pore,
lenticular, extending over 2 annules.
Genital primordium with 2 nuclei, located at the
Tail elongated, conical, with pointed terminus. Phasmids
pore-like, situated 45-47 µm from the
Reported median body size for this species (Length mm; width micrometers; weight micrograms) - Click:
The sugarcane cyst nematode was originally
reported from sugarcane,
West African countries including Congo-Brazzaville, Nigeria, CÃƒÆ’Ã‚Â´te d’Ivoire,
Liberia, Benin, Burkina Faso, Senegal, Cameroon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Togo
(Luc & Merny, 1963; Jerath, 1968; Merny, 1970; Luc, 1986; Nobbs
1992; Coyne et al.,
1996; Evans & Rowe, 1998; Tanha Maafi et al,., 2007).
1964) and Pakistan. (Maqbool, 1981). It has also been reported from Trinidad
(Singh, 1974) but that report has not been confirmed by molecular studies (Tanha Maafi
et al., 2007). The record from Trinidad (Singh, 1974) appears to have been
incorrectly reported as being from Jamaica by Luc (1974).
Considered a potentially important pest of sugarcane and rice and,
accordingly, is on the quarantine list of several countries.
Feeding site establishment and development
typical of genus.
Sugarcane (Saccharum officinale L.), Rice (Oryza
Also, several wild grasses sour grass (Paspalum
dactylon), carpet grass (Axonopus
Elesune indica, were
considered to be hosts by Odihirin (1975) in Southern Nigeria, namely
However, information on
the morphology of the populations isolated from the grasses is lacking and the
host status of these plants to
be confirmed (Tanha Maafi et al., 2007).
Parthenogenetic reproduction. Males rare, many have degenerate
Juveniles hatch readily in water.
In Nigeria, Jerath (1968) observed that H. sacchari
was more abundant in sandy soils than in clay soils, and that
cysts were more numerous in the soil during the dry season.
On pluronic gel medium at 25C, the life cycle was completed in 7-9 weeks on rice
Ã¯Â¿Â½NipponbareÃ¯Â¿Â½). After infection, juveniles developed and reached the reproducing
adult female stage in 25 days. All females had produced eggs by 35 days.
Female bodies began to turn into dark brown cysts at 49 days. Hatching of
huveniles from eggs could be stimukated by 3mM ZnCl2 but not by rice root
exudate (Pokhare et al., 2019).
Sugarcane plants become stunted, measuring 1-1.5 m in height
and remaining thin as compared with healthy plants which are 3-4
Secondary roots are fewer in damaged plants (Jerath, 1968).
Little work has been done on control.
Jerath (1968) indicated that molasses applied to sugarcane
fields decreased the number of cysts recovered to one-fourth the
number found in untreated soils.
Host Plant Resistance, Non-hosts and Crop Rotation alternatives:
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