Meloidogyne enterolobii

 

Contents

 

Rev 12/11/2019

Pacara Earpod Tree Root-knot Nematode Classification Hosts
Morphology and Anatomy Life Cycle
Return to Meloidogyne Menu Economic Importance Damage
Distribution Management
Return to Heteroderidae Menu Feeding  References
    Go to Nemaplex Main Menu   Go to Dictionary of Terminology

Classification:

      Tylenchida
       Tylenchina
        Tylenchoidea
         Heteroderidae
          Meloidogyninae

           Meloidogyne enterolobii Yang and Eisenback, 1983
Synonym Meloidogyne mayaguensis Rammah and Hirschmann, 1988

Holo- and paratypes of Meloidogyne mayaguensis Rammah & Hirschmann, 1988 and M. enterolobii Yang & Eisenback, 1983 were compared morphometrically and morphologically. All female, male and second-stage juvenile morphometrical and morphological characters are identical for the two species. Meloidogyne mayaguensis is confirmed as a junior synonym for M. enterolobii (Karssen et al., 2012).

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Morphology and Anatomy:

 

  Female: 
  Mature Female:  Body morphology.
Perineal pattern
   
Male:  Anterior Male:  Posterior - spicules and gubernaculum, no caudal alae.

Reported median body size for this species (Length mm; width micrometers; weight micrograms) - Click:

Second-stage juvenile

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Distribution:

Brazil,  Mexico, Malawi,  South Africa, and West Africa (Senegal, Ivory Coast and Burkina Faso). China, Vietnam, Florida, Central and South America, France, and Switzerland. Widely distributed in the Caribbean islands, including Cuba, Puerto Rico, Tobago, Trinidad, Guadeloupe and Martinique.

Reported from cotton and soybean in the United States (Ye et al., 2013)

M. enterolobii was first described from roots of pacara earpod trees (Enterolobium contortisiliquum) on Hainan Island in China. A few years after the description of M. enterolobii, M. mayaguensis was described from  eggplant in Puerto Rico.  Morphometric and molecular analysesd support the designation of M. mayaguensis as a junior synonym of M. enterolobii (Elling, 2013; Karssen, 2012).

Regulatory agencies of several  have designated M. enterolobii as a quarantine pathogen (Elling, 2013).


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Economic Importance:

Populations of Meloidogyne enterolobii are able to overcome resistance of the Mi gene in tomato cv. Rossol, soybean cv. Forrest, and sweet potato are reported in West Africa.

Damages coffee  in Cuba where it also reproduces on tomatoes with the Mi resistance gene.

It is considered the most important problem in guava production in Brazil  where it infests over 5,000 ha or about a third of the production area (Elling, 2013).

 

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Feeding:

Sedentary endoparasite.

Feeding site establishment and development typical of genus.

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Hosts:

Meloidogyne enterolobii has a very wide host range comparable to that of M. incognita.  It includes vegetables, guava, acerola, ornamentals, and weeds. Eggplant (Solanum melongena) was the host, first reported for M. (mayaguensis) enterolobii in Puerto Rico. Other recorded hosts include bell pepper (Capsicum annuum), soybean (Glycine max), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas), tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), and watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), coffee (Coffea arabica), bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), beet (Beta vulgaris), broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. Botrytis), celery (Apium graveolens), horsebean (Cannavalia ensiformis), parsley (Petroselynum crispum), potato (Solanum tuberosum), and pumpkin (Cucurbita sp.). 

Guava (Psidium guajava) is also a good host and the nematode has been found on other tropical fruit trees  (Annona sp., Pouteria sapota, Euphorbia longana, Chrysophyllum cainito).

Spanish needle (Bidens pilosa) is a weed host.

In Florida, M. enterolobii has been found associated with ornamentals, of angel trumpet (Brugmansia 'Sunray'), cape honeysuckle (Tecomaria capensis), glory bush (Tibouchina elegans), ajuga, carpet bugleweed (Ajuga reptans), and Uganda gloryflower (Clerodendrum ugandense). Also, Thunbergia spp., Tithonia spp., Torenia spp.,  Trachelospermum spp. and Hibiscus sp.

For an extensive host range list for this species, click

 

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Life Cycle:

Ecophysiological Parameters:

For Ecophysiological Parameters for this species, click If species level data are not available, click for genus level parameters

 

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Damage:

Above-ground symptoms include yellowing and stunting; roots have large galls.

In guava decline in  Brazil, M. enterolobii interacts synergistically with Fusarium solani. The fungus does not cause root-rot unless it is in a disease complex with M. enterolobii (Elling, 2013). 

 

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Management:

Host Plant Resistance, Non-hosts and Crop Rotation alternatives:

For plants reported to have some level of resistance to this species, click
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References:

Brito, J., R. Inserra, P. Lehman and W. Dixon.  2002. The root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne mayaguensis Rammah and Hirschmann, 1988 (Nematoda: Tylenchida).  http://doacs.state.fl.us/~pi/enpp/nema/m-ayaguensis.html.

CAB International. 2001.  Meloidogyne mayaguensis in Crop protection compendium, global module, 3rd edition. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Carneiro, R.M.D.G., W.A. Moreira, M.R.A. Almeida, and A.C.M.M. Gomes. 2001. Primeiro registro de Meloidogyne mayaguensis em Goiabeira no Brasil. Nematologia Brasileira 25:223-228.

Decker, H., and M. E. Rodriguez Fuentes. 1989. The occurrence of root gall nematodes  Meloidogyne mayaguensis on Coffea arabica in Cuba. Wissenschaftliche Zeitschrift der Wilhelm-Pieck, Universität, Rostock, Naturwissenschaftliche Reihe, 38: 32-34.

Elling, A.A. 2013. Major Emerging Problems with Minor Meloidogyne Species. Phytopathology 103:1092-1102.

Karssen, G., Ji. Liao, Z. Kan, E. I. J. van Heese, L.J.M.F. den Nijs, 2012. On the species status of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne mayaguensis Rammah & Hirschmann, 1988. ZooKeys 181:67-77.

Kermarrec, A., S. Panoma, P. Queneherve, H. Mauleon and P. Castagnone-Sereno. 2002, Genetic variability of Meloidogyne mayaguensis isolates from the Caribean. Nematology 4:171.

Willers, P. 1997. First record of  Meloidogyne mayaguensis Rammah & Hirschmann, 1988: Heteroderidae on commercial crops in the Mpumalanga province, South Africa. Inligtingsbulletin - Instituut vir Tropiese en Subtropiese Gewasse 294: 19-20.

Ye, W.M., S. R. Koenning, K. Zhuo & J. L. Liao. 2013. Plant Disease 97:1262.2

 
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Copyright © 1999 by Howard Ferris.
Revised: December 11, 2019.