Meloidogyne haplanaria




Rev 08/30/2022

Texas Peanut Root-knot Nematode Classification Hosts
Morphology and Anatomy Life Cycle
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        Meloidogyne haplanaria Eisenback, Bernard, Starr, Lee & Tomaszewski, 2003.


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Morphology and Anatomy:


  • Body translucent white, pear-shaped with short neck, posteriorly rounded, without tail protuberance.
  • Labial disc fused with medial lips; dumbbell-shaped in face view. Medial lips crescent-shaped. Lateral lips large, triangular, separated from medial lips and head region.
  •  Head region not set off from regular body annules.
  • Distance of excretory pore to head end variable in distance (30.9–118.2 um); located in most specimens midway between anterior end and metacorpus.
  •  Stylet long and robust; cone of same size as shaft, tip straight or slightly curved dorsally, widening gradually posteriorly; junction of cone and shaft uneven. Shaft cylindrical and same width throughout, or widening slightly near junction with knobs; knobs broad laterally,
  • Distance between stylet base and dorsal esophageal gland orifice (DGO) moderately long (4.7–6.3 um).
  •  Esophageal glands large, trilobed; dorsal lobe largest, unicleate; two subventral nucleated lobes variable in size, shape, and position; located posterior to dorsal gland lobe.
  • Two ovaries and six rectal glands as characteristic of genus.
  • Perineal patterns extremely rounded to oval-shaped. Dorsal arch high and rounded except for striae near vulva, which are low with rounded shoulders. Lateral field with distinctly forked striae. Ventral striae vary from wavy to coarse.
  • Tail tip area well defined, free of striae; often with a few to several subcuticular punctations.
  • Vulva located in depression, surrounded by wide cuticular ridge.
  •  Anus distinct, surrounded by a thick cuticular layer.


  • Body translucent white, vermiform; body tapering anteriorly, bluntly rounded posteriorly; tail twisting through 90° in heat-killed specimens.
  • Head cap high in lateral view, extending posteriorly onto distinctly set-off head region. Head region high in lateral view, tapering posteriorly, distinctly set off from body.
  •  Hexaradiate cephalic framework well sclerotized; vestibule and extension distinct.
  • Stoma slitlike, located in large, hexagonal prestomatal cavity, surrounded by pore-like openings of six inner labial sensilla. Medial lips very wide, outer margins crescent-shaped, sloping posteriorly.
  •  Amphidial apertures large, elongated, slit-like between labial disc and lateral sectors of head region.
  • Body annules large, distinct. Lateral field with four incisures, two beginning near level of stylet knobs and two near level of metacorpus; lateral field areolated, encircling tail.
  •  Stylet robust, large; cone straight, pointed, gradually increasing in diameter posteriorly; opening located several micrometers from stylet tip; cone of same size as shaft. Shaft cylindrical, posterior end wider than anterior end. Knobs large, wide, rounded, set off from shaft.
  • DEGO to stylet base variable in distance (3.7–6.4 um),
  • Procorpus indistinctly outlined, metacorpus elongate, oval-shaped with valve enlarged, triradiate cuticular lumen lining; subventral esophageal gland orifices branched, located posteriorly to metacorpus.
  •  Excretory pore distinct, variable in position (150.0–180.9 um), terminal duct long. Hemizonid located anterior to excretory pore.
  • Usually one testis, rarely two testes, outstretched, or reflexed anteriorly.
  • Spicules long, slender, slightly arcuate with single tip, short head, wide vellum, and indistinct shaft. Gubernaculum distinct, crescent shaped.
  • Tail short and rounded. Phasmids slit-like opening near level of cloaca

Ref: Eisenback et al (2003)

Reported median body size for this species (Length mm; width micrometers; weight micrograms) - Click:

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Reported originally from peanut in Texas but determined to have a wide host range when tested on other plants.  More recently in Florida infecting Mi-gene root-knot-resistant tomato plants and in California on the roots of pitcher plants in a botanical garden nursery (Benmdezu et al., 2004; Eisenback et al., 2003; Joseph et al., 2016; Subbotin, 2021).


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Economic Importance:


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Feeding site establishment and development typical of genus. 

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Type Host:: Peanut (Arachis hypogaea).

For an extensive host range list for this species, click


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Life Cycle:

Ecophysiological Parameters:

For Ecophysiological Parameters for this species, click If species level data are not available, click for genus level parameters


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Root-galling of infected plants ate the type locality in Texas was similar to that of M. hapla, with small galls and increased numbers of secondary roots. However, esterase and malate dehydrogenase phenotypes and reproduction on a standard set of host differentials indicated that the population differed from other Meloidogyne species (Eisenback et al., 2003).

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Host Plant Resistance, Non-hosts and Crop Rotation alternatives:

For plants reported to have some level of resistance to this species, click
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Bendezu, F., Morgan, E., Starr, J.L. 2004. Hosts for Meloidogyne haplanaria. Nematropica 34:205-209.

Eisenback, J.D., Bernard, E.C., Starr, J.L., Lee, T.A.,  and Tomaszewski, E.K., 2003. Meloidogyne haplanaria n. sp.(Nematoda: Meloidogynidae), a root-knot nematode parasitizing peanut in Texas. J. Nematology 35:395-403.

Joseph, S., Mekete, T., Danquah, W.R., Noling, J. 2016. First Report of Meloidogyne haplanaria Infecting Mi-Resistant Tomato Plants in Florida and Its Molecular Diagnosis Based on Mitochondrial Haplotype. Plant Disease 100:1436-1445.

Subbotin, S.A. 2021. Report of the Texas peanut root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne haplanaria (Tylenchida: Meloidogynidae) from American pitcher plants (Sarracenia sp.) in California. J. Nematology 53:e2021-77.


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Copyright © 1999 by Howard Ferris.
Revised: August 30, 2022.