Rev 05/17/2021

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           Pratylenchoides (Winslow, 1958) 
          Hoplorhynchus (Andrassy, 1985)
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Morphology and Anatomy:

Pratylenchoides spp. were originally thought to be closely related to the lesion nematodes (Pratylenchus spp.). Ryss (1993) transferred Pratylenchoides to the subfamily Pratylenchoidinae Siddiqi, 1971 in the family Merliniidae. Molecular studies support this decision (Bert et al., 2008; Holterman et al., 2009; van Megen et al., 2009; Ghaderi et al., 2014; Panahandeh et al., 2014; Azizi et al., 2016; Hosseinvand et al., 2009).



  • Labial region flattened anteriorly, somewhat conical, characterized (with SEM) by the fusion of labial disc with subventral sectors of first lip annule.  The six sectors remain distinct from each other. 
  • Stylet strong, with rounded basal knobs.
  • Esophageal glands overlap intestine. Variable in length, in some cases (P. magnicauda) nearly absent. Generally, at least one esophageal gland nucleus anterior to level of esophago-intestinal valve. In some species, all three nuclei are posterior to valve. but in this case, two posterior nuclei at a relatively great distance from the anterior one (long intestinal overlap). 
  • Esophago-intestinal valve well developed..
  • Deirids conspicuous.
  • Female genital tract paired, amphidelphic. .  



  • Sexual dimorphism of anterior part of male exhibited by less conspicuous development of stylet and lesser development of the esophagus. 
  • Caudal alae enveloping tail.
  • Gubernaculum not protruding from cloaca.




Body size range for the species of this genus in the database - Click:
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Economic Importance:


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For an extensive host range list for this genus, click
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Life Cycle:

For Ecophysiological Parameters for this genus, click 
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Andrassy, I. (1985). A dozen new nematode species from Hungary. Opusca Zoologica 17, 3-39

Azizi, K., Eskandari, A., Karegar, A., Ghaderi, R., van den Elsen, S., Holterman, M. & Helder, J. (2016). Morphometric and molecular characterization of Pratylenchoides persicus sp. n. (Nematoda: Merliniidae) and additional data on two other species of genus from Iran. Zootaxa 4205:459-474.

Bert, W., Leliaert, F., Vierstraete, A.R., Vanfleteren, J.R. & Borgonie, G. (2008). Molecular phylogeny of the Tylenchina and evolution of the female gonoduct (Nematoda: Rhabditida). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 48, 728-744, DOI:10.1016/j.ympev.2008.04.011.

Ghaderi, R. & Karegar, A. (2014). Contribution to a revision of the genus Pratylenchoides Winslow, 1958 (Nematoda: Merliniidae), with redescription of P. erzurumensis Y�ksel, 1977 from Iran. Zootaxa 3900, 339-369, DOI:10.11646/zootaxa.3900.3.2.

Holterman, M., Karssen, G., van den Elsen, S., van Megen, H., Bakker, J. & Helder, J. (2009). Small subunit rDNA-based phylogeny of the Tylenchida sheds light on relationships among some high-impact plant-parasitic nematodes and the evolution of plant feeding. Phytopathology 99, 227-235, DOI:10.1094/phyto-99-3-0227.

Hosseinvand. M., A. Eskandari and R. Ghaderi, 2019. Additional data on Pratylenchoides riparius (Andr�ssy, 1985) Luc, 1986 (Nematoda: Merliniidae) from Iran. Nematology 21:827-836.

Luc, M. (1986). Hoplorhynchus Andr�ssy, 1985, a junior synonym of Pratylenchoides Winslow, 1958 (Nemata: Pratylenchidae). Revue de N�matologie 9, 198

Panahandeh, Y., Pourjam, E., Atighi, M.R. & Pedram, M. (2014). Morphological and molecular characterization of three species of the genus Pratylenchoides Winslow, 1958 (Tylenchina, Merliniidae, Pratylenchoidinae) from Iran. Journal of Crop Protection 3(Supplement), 691-709.

van Megen, H., van den Elsen, S., Holterman, M., Karssen, G., Mooyman, P., Bongers, T., Holovachov, O., Bakker, J. & Helder, J. (2009). A phylogenetic tree of nematodes based on about 1200 full-length small subunit ribosomal DNA sequences. Nematology 11, 927-950, DOI:10.1163/156854109x456862

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Copyright © 1999 by Howard Ferris.
Revised: May 17, 2021.