Rev 10/05/2023

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           Punctodera Mulvey & Stone, 1976

Type species of the genus: Punctodera punctata (Thorne, 1928) Mulvey & Stone, 1976


Refer to Subfamily Diagnostics (Heteroderinae) for taxonomic history and distinctions among related genera.

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Morphology and Anatomy:



  • Cyst stage present.
  • Body globose, spherical to pear-shaped with short neck and no terminal cone.  
  • Cuticle thick, with superficial, reticulate pattern; subcuticle with punctation.  D-layer present; subcrystalline layer present, thick; solor pale to dark brown..  
  • Vulva terminal; vulval slit short, less than 5 µm long, surrounded by a circular circumfenestra; no vulval cone,   no perineal papillae; no underbridge;  bullae present or absent (in different species).
  • Anus surrounded by a separate circular (anal) fenestra and offswet towards ventral margin of fenestra..Extensive anal fenestration is a characteristic of the genus.
  • Eggs retained in body (no egg mass).  


  • Body twisted.
  • Lateral field with four lines.  
  • Spicules greater than 30 µm long, slightly curved, distally pointed.  
  • No cloacal tube.  
  • Tail very short, rounded. 

Second-stage juveniles:

  • Stylet less than 30 µm long.  
  • Lateral field with four lines.  
  • Esophageal glands long, fill body cavity, overlap intestine ventrally and laterally..  
  • Tail conical, to conical-effilated with long, hyaline, terminal portion.  
  • Phasmids punctiform.  

[Ref: Luc, Maggenti & Fortuner, (1988); Kantor et al., 2021

Body size range for the species of this genus in the database - Click:
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Species reported from USA, Mexico, Brazil, Ecuador, South Koreas, Germany, Netherkands, Spain and Eastern Europe.

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Economic Importance:


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Nurse cell system: A syncytium.      

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Species of Punctodera are reported from monocotyledonous plants,  mainly from grasses and maize.

For an extensive host range list for this genus, click
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Life Cycle:

For Ecophysiological Parameters for this genus, click 
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Kantor, M.L., Handoo, Z.A., Skantar, A.M., Hult, M.N., Ingham, R.E., Wade, N.M., Ye, W., Gauchan, G.R., Mowery, J.G. 2021. Morphological and molecular characterisation of Punctodera mulveyi n. sp. (Nematoda: Punctoderidae) from a golf course green in Oregon, USA, with a key to species of Punctodera. Nematology 23:667-683

Luc, Maggenti & Fortuner, Rev. Nematol. 11:159-176 (1988).

Subbotin, S.A., Mundo-Ocampo, M., Baldwin, J.G. 2010. Systematics of Cyst Nematodes (Nematode: Heteroderinae). Nematology Monographs and Perspectives Volume 8A , D.J. Hunt and R.N. Perry (eds) Brill, Leiden, The Netherlands 351p

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Copyright © 1999 by Howard Ferris.
Revised: October 05, 2023.