Punctodera chalcoensis Stone, Sosa Moss and Mulvey, 1976
Mexican corn cyst nematode
Cyst stage present. Body globose, spherical to
pear-shaped with short neck and no terminal cone, white color.
Head with one or two prominent annules. Stylet slender, often
curved, with rounded basal knobs. Esophagus strongly developed with
massive, circular median bulb with prominent valve.
Two large ovaries filling the enlarged body cavity which in mature
females is occupied by eggs.
Cuticle greatly thickened except in head region, covered with a
rugose or lace-like pattern of shallow ridges, with a sub-surface
pattern of rows of fine refractive punctations.
Vulva a short transverse slit centered in a circular zone lof
thin cuticle - the vulval fenestra.
Anus, a transverse slit smaller than the vulva and dorsal to the
vulva in a thin-walled circular anal fenestra .
Eggs retained in body (no egg mass) but a very small gelatinous
matrix observed on some specimens. (Stone et al., 1976).
Cysts pale to dark brown, darkening with age. Thin walls of the
vulval and anal fenestrae are lost in old cysts.
Males: Typical heteroderid male morphology.
Body vermiform, ventrally curved and twisted through 180Ã‚Â° .
field with four lines.
Stylet well developed with shallow basal knobs, flat to concave
Spicules greater than 30 Âµm long, slightly curved,
distally pointed. No
Tail very short, rounded.
Reported median body size for this species (Length mm; width micrometers; weight micrograms) - Click:
Reported from areas above 2000 m in the Mexico, Tlaxcala and Pueblo States of
Mexico, mainly in sandy soils.
Probably indigenous to Central Mexico and co-evolved with maize (Stone et
Considered of extreme importance on maize in its area of distribution.
Causes evere plant damage, especially in soils of volcanic origin (McDonald and
Nurse cell system is a syncytium.
Corn, Zea mays and teosinte, Zea mexicana. These were
the only hosts out of 300 graminaceous plants tested (McDonald and Nicol, 2005).
Note that wheat and many grasses are hosts of the related
One generation per year.
Heavily attacked Zea mays plants have stunted root systems
with many short laterals. Aerial parts of the plants appear unthrifty.
Greater damage is observed when rainy season starts early after planting than
when onset of rain is delayed, possibly be due to greater hatch, mobility and
invasion of juveniles in the moister soil.
No resistance was found in a wide range of maize varieties or in thirteen
separate isolates of teosinte (Stone et al., 1976). However, over 300 other
graminaceous plants were non-hosts..
Host Plant Resistance, Non-hosts
Non-hosts include Avena sativa (7 varieties), A. f atua,
Triticum aestivum ( 14 varieties ), Secale cereale (11
varieties ), triticale (12 varieties), Sorghum vugare (119 varieties ),
Agropyron spp.(6), Bromus spp. ( 2 ), Dactylis sp.,
Elymus sp., Festuca spp. (3), Lolium spp. (2) and
Phleum sp. (Stone et al., 1976).
McDonald, A.H. and Nicol, J.M. 2005.
Nematode parasites of cereals. Pp131-192 in Luc, M., Sikora, R.A., and
Bridge, J. Plant Parasitic Nematodes in Tropical and Subtropical
Agriculture. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, UK.
Stone, A.R.; Sosa
Moss, C.; Mulvey, R.H. 1976.
Punctodera chalcoensis n. sp. (Nematoda: Heteroderidae) a cyst nematode
from Mexico parasitising Zea mays.