Trophonema is considered a synonym of Trophotylenchulus (Ghaderi
et al., 2016)
Females: Embedded into the
root by the anterior portion.
Body coiled, regularly inflated at the
Vulva posterior, but not terminal; post-vulval part
tapering, ventrally curved; anus and rectum present. Uterine wall not
thickened. No uterine cyst.
Penial tube short.
Ghaderi, R., Geraert, E., Karegar, A. 2016. TheTylenchulidae of the World.
Academia Press, Ghent, Belgium
Raski, D.J. and Luc, M. 1987. A reapraisal of Tylenchina (Nemata) 10.
The superfamily Criconematidea Taylor, 1936., Rev. Nematol. 10: 409-444..