Xiphinema diversicaudatum (Micoletzky,
1927), Thorne, 1939
Reported median body size for this species (Length mm; width micrometers; weight micrograms) - Click:
Permanent pasture and woodland sites in Europe and parts of the U.S.; also
found in Australia.
A-rated pests in California.
Nematode feeds at root tips; stylet reaches vascular tissue and causes local
necrosis and hypertrophy.
Pasture, weeds, trees, roses, and hops.
Life cycle can be as long as 3 years; female may live up to 5 years; reported to
survive 3 years in the absence of plants.
Males occur, sperm are observed in female spermathecae and the species
The total reproductive capacity of females was estimated at 180-200 progeny
for a population from Scotland cultured on strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa)
roots. Development from egg to adult was 12 weeks at 18C or 1090 DDbase5C (Brown
and Coiro, 1983).
Female longevity was in the strawberry study was 60 weeks or 5460 DDbase5 of
which the reproductive span was 36 weeks with an estimate of one egg produced
each 21 DDbase5C.
Nematode causes direct damage and can transmit
Direct damage includes terminal or sub-terminal galling and distortion of feeder
root tips (Thomas, 1970).
arabis mosaic virus (AMV) and strawberry latent ringspot virus (SLRV) in Europe to a range of crops, including hop, cherry, etc.
In an experiment with 40 plant species inoculated with viruliferous
X. diversicaudatum, most plants exhibited symptoms of either AMV or
SLRV. However, the virus es were not detcetde in some tree and shrub
species, even when the plants were good hosts to the nematodes (Thomas,
Virus particles attach to cuticular lining of
esophagus, especially in the
anterior region of odontophore. During molt, esophageal lining passes
through the intestine, and juveniles lose infectivity. Virus can be
retained in adults for up to 8 months.
fumigation with 1,3-Dichloropropene
(Telone) at 40 gpa.; methyl
bromide at 1000lb/ac to control to 28 in.
Nematode is tolerant of starvation, thus making fallow
Control of nematode is desirable to reduce virus infection of plants.
Host Plant Resistance, Non-hosts
Brown D.J.F. and Coiro M.I., 1983 - The total reproductive capacity and
longevity of individual female Xiphinema diversicaudatum (Nematoda:
Dorylaimidal. Nematologia Mediterranea, 11: 87-92.
Thomas, P.R. 1970. Host status of some plants for
Xiphinemu diversicaudatum (Micol.) and their susceptibility to viruses
transmitted by this species. Ann. Appl. Biol. 65:169-178.