Xiphinema diversicaudatum




Rev 02/04/2021

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Morphology and Anatomy Life Cycle
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      Xiphinema diversicaudatum (Micoletzky, 1927), Thorne, 1939

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Morphology and Anatomy:

Nematode is 4.0-5.5mm long.

 Reported median body size for this species (Length mm; width micrometers; weight micrograms) - Click:

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Permanent pasture and woodland sites in Europe and parts of the U.S.; also found in Australia.


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Economic Importance:

 A-rated pests in California.


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Nematode feeds at root tips; stylet reaches vascular tissue and causes local necrosis and hypertrophy.


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 Pasture, weeds, trees, roses, and hops. 

For an extensive host range list for this species, click

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Life Cycle:

Ecophysiological Parameters:

For Ecophysiological Parameters for this species, click If species level data are not available, click for genus level parameters

Life cycle can be as long as 3 years; female may live up to 5 years; reported to survive 3 years in the absence of plants.    

Males occur, sperm are observed in female spermathecae and the species reproduces sexually.

The total reproductive capacity of females was estimated at 180-200 progeny for a population from Scotland cultured on strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) roots. Development from egg to adult was 12 weeks at 18C or 1090 DDbase5C (Brown and Coiro, 1983).

Female longevity was in the strawberry study was 60 weeks or 5460 DDbase5 of which the reproductive span was 36 weeks with an estimate of one egg produced each 21 DDbase5C.

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Nematode causes direct damage and can transmit viruses.   Direct damage includes terminal or sub-terminal galling and distortion of feeder root tips (Thomas, 1970).

Transmits arabis mosaic virus (AMV) and strawberry latent ringspot virus (SLRV) in Europe to a range of crops, including hop, cherry, etc.

In an experiment with 40 plant species inoculated with viruliferous X. diversicaudatum, most plants exhibited symptoms of either AMV or SLRV.  However, the virus es were not detcetde in some tree and shrub species, even when the plants were good hosts to the nematodes (Thomas, 1970).

Virus particles attach to cuticular lining of esophagus, especially in the anterior region of odontophore.  During molt, esophageal lining passes through the intestine, and juveniles lose infectivity.  Virus can be retained in adults for up to 8 months.


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Preplant soil fumigation with 1,3-Dichloropropene (Telone) at 40 gpa.; methyl bromide at 1000lb/ac to control to 28 in. 

Nematode is tolerant of starvation, thus making fallow ineffective. 

Control of nematode is desirable to reduce virus infection of plants.

Host Plant Resistance, Non-hosts and Crop Rotation alternatives:

For plants reported to have some level of resistance to this species, click


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Brown D.J.F. and Coiro M.I., 1983 - The total reproductive capacity and longevity of individual female Xiphinema diversicaudatum (Nematoda: Dorylaimidal. Nematologia Mediterranea, 11: 87-92.

Thomas, P.R. 1970. Host status of some plants for Xiphinemu diversicaudatum (Micol.) and their susceptibility to viruses transmitted by this species. Ann. Appl. Biol. 65:169-178.


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Copyright © 1999 by Howard Ferris.
Revised: February 04, 2021 .