Rev 09/23/2023

Classification Hosts
Morphology and Anatomy Life Cycle
Return to Ektaphelenchoides Menu Economic Importance Damage
Distribution Management
Return to Aphelenchoididae Menu Feeding  References
Go to Nemaplex Main Menu       Go to Dictionary of Terminology





            Ektaphelenchoides Baujard, 1984

Type species of the genus: Ektaphelenchoides pini (Massey, 1966) Baujard, 1984

Back to Top

Morphology and Anatomy:

Morphologically very similar to the genus Seinura but distinguished in lacking a rectum and anus (Baujard, 1984; Kanzaki, 2014).


Body size range for the species of this genus in the database - Click:

Go To Dictionary of Terminology 

Back to Top


Often associated with decaying tree bark and insect galleries in and under tree bark. Sometimes associated with insect galleries.

Currently, the genus contains 18 nominal species; the majority reported from warmer areas of the world (Gu et al., 2021; Gu et al., 2022)

Back to Top

Economic Importance:

Ektaphelenchoides spp. not pathogenic to plants, their economic significance lies more in their predatoryion behavior on host insects, especially beetles, and on other nematodes (Kanzaki, 2014). Mycophagy has only been observed in a few members of the genus (Pedram et al., 2012; Aliramaji et al., 2014; Kanzaki, 2014; Esmaeili et al., 2018).

Back to Top


Endoparasitic predators of insects although E. spondylis was observed to feed on nematodes (Pseudodiplogasteroides sp.).

Ecto- and endoparasitic feeding of Ektaphelenchoides on their insect hosts involves injecting pharyngeal secretions into the insect hosts and sucking their body contents for brief periods.  However, feeding leading to death of the host has noty been observed. (Hooper, 1995, Kanzaki, 2014):

Presence of the nematodes in insect galleries is is usually used to infer insect association.


Back to Top


Species have been recovered from xylem of pine trees, banana corms and rhzosphere of some plants.  However, most species are recovered from tree bark with insect galleries.  Some have beern found attached to insect larvae and others from the body cavities of adult insects (Aliramaji et al., 2015).

Back to Top

Life Cycle:

Ecophysiological Parameters:

  Click for genus level parameters



Back to Top




Back to Top



Back to Top


Aliramaji, F., Pourjam, E., Atighi, M.R., Ye, W., RoshanBakhsh, A. and Pedram, M. 2014. Description of Ektaphelenchoides poinari sp. n. (Nematoda: Ektaphelenchinae) from Iran with compendium of the valid species of the genus Ektaphelenchoides Baujard, 1984. Russian Journal of Nematology 22:11-22.


Aliramaji, F., Pourjam, E., Karegar, A., Arighi, M.R., Pedram, M. 2015.Description of Ektaphelenchoides caspiensis n. sp. (Nematoda: Ektaphelenchinae) from Iran. Nematology 17:169-177.

Baujard, P. 1984. Remarques sur la sous-familie Ektaphelenchinae Paramonov, 1964 et proposition d'Ektapelenchoides n. gem. (Nematodea: Aphelenchoididae). Revue de Nematologie 7:147-171.

Esmaeili, M., Golhasan, B., Tahmoures, M. and Heydari, R. 2018. Description of Ektaphelenchoides persicus sp. n. (Nematoda: Ektaphelenchinae) from western Iran. Acta Zoologica Bulgarica 70:445-451.

Gu, J., Munawar, M., Palomares-Rius, J.E. and Castillo, P. 2021. New alien and native Ektaphelenchid nematodes (Tylenchomorpha: Ektaphelenchinae) from China with details on host association and geographical distribution. European Journal of Plant Pathology 161, 123-145. DOI: 10.1007/ s10658-021-02308-6

Gu, J., Ma, X., Fang, Y., Yu, H., and Munawar, M. 2022. Detection and identification of Ektaphelenchoides diversislocis sp. n. isolated from Pinus woodlands of China and Japan. Nematology 24:821-836.

Hooper, D.J. 1995. Ektaphelenchoides winteri sp. n. (Nematoda: Ektaphelenchidae) from wood fly larvae Xylodiplosis sp. (Diptera: Cecidomyidae). Fundamental and Applied Nematology 18:465-470.

Kanzaki, N. 2014. Ektaphelenchoides spondylis is a predatory nematode. Nematology 16:245-247.

Li, H., Gu, J., Fang, Y., Ma, X., Munawar, M. 2022. Redescription of Ektaphelenchoides compsi Baujard, 1984 (Tylenchina: Aphelenchoididae) isolated from Pinus massoniana in Fujian Province, China. Nematology 24:453-463.

Pedram, M., Pourjam, E., Atighi, M.R., Ye, W. and Houshmand, A. 2012. Ektaphelenchoides sylvestris sp. nov. (Nematoda: Ektaphelenchinae) from Iran. Annales Zoologici 62, 325-329. DOI: 10.3161/000345412X652864


Back to Top

For more information about nematodes, Go to Nemaplex Main Menu.
Copyright © 1999 by Howard Ferris.
Revised: September 23, 2023.