Review general characteristics of the genus Meloidogyne.
Sample perineal patterns of Meloidogyne javanica. The
double lateral lines are characteristic.
Body shapes of immature and mature females.
Males of Meloidogyne javanica are vermiform and
1 mm to 1.5 mm long.
The body rotates through a characteristic half twist
along its length.
There is no bursa.
Males probably do not feed and usually have no
reproductive function. They may develop in larger numbers under
Reported median body size for this species (Length mm; width micrometers; weight micrograms) - Click:
Originally described from Java, Indonesia. Occurs widely in warm regions of the world.
Predominant root-knot species in central Africa.
Species is often dominant at higher altitudes in warm climates..
pest in California Nematode Pest
Rating System. (Scheck, 2022).
Meloidogyne javanica has a very broad host range with close to
800 host plants recorded. It is one of the most serious pests of crops in
central Africa and is considered second only to M.
incognita in importance worldwide, being widespread in sub-tropical
and tropical regions (Sasser et al., 1985; Scheck, 2022)..
In California, M. javanica is most often associated with beet,
citrus, tomato, olive, potato, grape, and peach (Chitambar et al., 2018).
Feeding site establishment and development
typical of genus.
Sedentary endoparasite of plant roots.
Type Host: sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum).
Very broad host range; over 770 species of host plants.
Reproduction by mitotic parthenogenesis (see life
cycle details for the genus).
Chromosome number 2n=42-48. The large number, and variability of
chromosome number, are typical of species reproducing by obligate
parthenogenesis. (Subbotin et al., 2021; Triantaphyllou, 1985).
Minimum, optimum, and maximum temperatures recorded for
life processes of M.
This species is the most serious pest of crops in central Africa (Daulton
& Curtis, 1964).
Interactions between M. javanica and other pathogens can occur.
Like other root-knot nematodes, M. javanica incites galls on the
root systems of host plants. Damage to the root systems impairs the ability
of the plant to take up water and nutrients from the soil. The feeding site
is a group of cells known as "giant-cells", created when the nematode
injects secretory proteins that stimulate changes within the parasitized
cells. The feeding-site cells are multinucleate duew to nuclear division
occurring without cell wall formation, known as karyokinesis without
cytokinesis,. Giant-cells act as nutrient sinks, supplying large amounts of
resources to the nematode. The production of plant growth regulators control
development and function of the giant cells (Scheck, 2022).
Soil fumigants in higher value crops.
rotation can be effective, but may be difficult to find non-hosts of
Hot water dips of planting material (for example, potatoes at 46 C for 2
There is less plant resistance to attack by this species
than for M. incognita.
In tobacco fields in North Carolina, the predominant Meloidogyne
species was M. incognita
until introduction of cultivars with resistance to that species.
Subsequently there has been a shift to M. javanica and M.
arenaria, which now predominate in tobacco fields (and for which
resistance is not available).
The Mi gene of tomato confers resistance to several species of root-knot
nematode, including M. javanica, M. incognita and
Cultivars of carrot derived from
Brasilia carry single gene resistance to M. javanica. The gene does
not confer resistance to M. incognita; that had to be provided from other
Host Plant Resistance, Non-hosts
Scheck, H.J. 2022. California Pest Rating Proposal for Meloidogyne
javanica (Treub, 1885) Chitwood, 1949. CDFA, California, USA
Subbotin, S.A. Palomares-Rius, J.E., Castillo, P. 2021. Systematics of
Root-knot Nematodes (Nematoda: Meloidogynidae). Nematology Monographs and
Perspectives Vol 14: D.J. Hunt and R.N. Perry (eds) Brill, Leiden, The
Triantaphyllou, A.C. 1985. Gametogenesis and the chromosomes of
Meloidogune nataliei: not typical of other root-knot nematodes. J.
Triantaphyllou, A.C. 1985.
Cytogenetics, cytotaxonomy and phylogeny of root-knot nematodes. In Sasser,
J.N. & Carter, C.C. (eds) An Advanced Treatiswe on Meloidogyne.Vol 1. Biology
and Control.N.C. State Universty Graphics, Raleigh, N.C. USA.