Reported median body size for this species (Length mm; width micrometers; weight micrograms) - Click:
Europe, Australia, Canada, U.S. (especially Pacific Northwest), New Zealand, and
former Soviet Union.
Anguina agrostis is a
B-rated pest in California, USA.
37, 46, and 48% of orchard grass seed samples from the Willamette Valley of
Oregon during 1996, 1997, and 2000, respectively, containing Anguina
galls. The number of galls ranged from 1-24 per 25 g of grass seed
(Alderman et al., 2003).
Anguina agrostis was first described from bent grass (Agrostis
capillaris) in Germany. Over time, a lengthy host list of additional
grasses was added. An analysis of the ITS rRNA gene sequences made by
Subbotin et al. (2004, 2020) showed that the host ranges of seed gall
nematodes are limited and the host range of A. agrostis was limited
to Agrostis capillaris. Other grasses previously indicated as hosts
were parasitized by several other described and still undescribed species of
Anguina. Anguina agrostis sensu stricto causes
characteristic elongate galls and abnormally elongated floral structures in
Agrostis grasses. A recent report on this nematode indicates a new
host, blue fowl grass, Poa paulustris in Wyoming (Roubtsova and
Annual and perennial rye grasses and bent grasses.
The following are listed as hosts in various literature sources: to
Anguina "agrostis" sensu lato.. But see above, the host list of A.
agrostis sensu stricto is currently limited to Anguina capillaris
and Poa palustris (Scheck, 2021).
Similar to A. tritici, except that second stage hatches from
One generation produced per year. Seed gall ruptures when mucoprotein takes up water and expels nematodes. This corresponds to favorable conditions for germination of host seeds.
Nematodes can remain viable in dry, cigar-shaped galls for up to 10 years.
Second state juveniles (J2) hatch and invade young grasses in early May
in Europe or the end of August in Australia. J2s may feed as ectoparasites
during the vegetative growth stage, migrating to areas of new growth or
being carried up with the growing point of the plant. When the grass
inflorescence begins to form, the J2s invade the flower ovule and begin to
feed as endoparasites.
Maturation and oviposition begin in mid-June or mid-October, depending on
the hemisphere, with only one generation per year (Pinkerton and Alderman,
1994; Riddle and Byrd, 1984; Krall, 1991).
Nematode feeding on floret primordia induces rapid cell division, cell
enlargement, and subsequent cell degeneration and collapse. As this process
continues, a large central cavity forms and is enveloped by a gall wall, and
the nematodes reside inside. Gall size will increase rapidly as nematodes
grow and reproduce. The gall wall is several cell layers thick with inner
cells of the gall wall with dense cytoplasm with several mitochondria, and
high levels of metabolic activity. These cells provide nutrients to the
nematodes. Within the gall, nematodes go through three molts, J3, J4, and a
final molt to become either male or female adults.
Reproduction is amphimictic and females can lay up to 1000 eggs. The
first molt occurs in the egg and the nematode hatches as a J2. These
juveniles undergo anhydrobiosis and become the dormant dauer stage to
withstand the summer heat. Winter or spring rains cause the seed galls to
rupture when their mucoprotein takes up water and expels nematodes. This
corresponds to favorable conditions for germination of host seeds. As the
plant senesces, the galls desiccate, and the nematodes undergo
anhydrobiosis, a state that can last for many years (Subbotin and Riley,
In Australia, a bacterium formerly considered to be Corynebacterium rathayi attaches to nematode cuticle and is carried into seed gall.
Corynebacterium rathayi is now reclassified as Clavibacter rathayi and the ryegrass toxicity organism is considered closely related
to but may be a new species of Clavibacter (Riley, 1987).
The bacterium outcompetes the nematode for resources in seed gall, increases,
and coats surface which becomes sticky and yellow; produces a neurotoxin that
causes convulsion and mortality in grazing animals, i.e., "Staggers." - term
used for the effect on sheep[ in Australia. The toxin is produced late in
season as the gall matures ( Bird
and Stynes, 1977).
Livestock poisoning is occasionally reported in the U.S., otherwise, majority of
the damage caused by the nematode results in reduction of seed yield.
The relationship between nematode and bacterium is similar to that between A. tritici and Clavibacter tritici that causes Tundu disease of wheat.
Anguina agrostis is a serious and important nematode pest of
bent grass grown for seed, especially in the Pacific Northwest of the United
States and New Zealand (Pinkerton and Alderman, 1994; Southey, 1973). Hosts:
Agrostis capillaris (colonial bent grass), Poa palustris (fowl bluegrass)
(Roubtsova and Subbotin, 2020). Colonial bent grass and fowl bluegrass are both
non-native perennials. They are widespread in California, especially along the
coast and in the Sierra Nevada (Calfora, 2021).
In grasses, seed galls are difficult to detect as they are covered by lemmas
and paleas. A small scarifier can be used to remove lemmas and paleas without
damage to seeds or galls. That allows visual identification of galls (Alderman
et al., 2003).
Host Plant Resistance, Non-hosts
Galls containing nematodes can be harvested and shipped with seeds. The
galls can be difficult to detect as they are covered by the chaffy scales or
bractlets around the florets. Mechanical seed cleaning removes most galls,
but control is more effective when combined with hot water treatment.
Movement with sand, soil or water is also possible (CABI-ISC, 2021).
Alderman SC, Bilsland DM, Griesbach JA, Milbrath
GM, Schaad NW, Postnikova E. 2003. Use of a seed scarifier for detection and
enumeration of galls of Anguina and Rathayibacter species in
orchard grass seed. Plant Disease 87:320-323.
Bird, A.F., Stynes, B.A. 1977. The
morphology of a Corynebacterium sp. parasitic on annual ryegrass
CABI Invasive Species Compendium
2021. Anguina agrostis. https://www.cabi.org/cpc/datasheet/120026 Accessed
Chitambar, J. J., Westerdahl, B. B.,
and Subbotin, S. A. 2018. Plant Parasitic Nematodes in California
Agriculture. In Subbotin, S., Chitambar J., (eds) Plant Parasitic Nematodes
in Sustainable Agriculture of North America. Sustainability in Plant and
Crop Protection. Springer, Cham.
Chizhov, V. N., and Subbotin, S. A.
1990. [Plant-parasitic nematodes of the subfamily Anguininae (Nematoda,
Tylenchida). Morphology, trophic specialization, system.] Zool. Zh. 69:15-26
CIH Descriptions of Plant-parasitic Nematodes,
Set 2, No. 20 (1973)
EPPO Global Database. 2021. Anguina
https://www.cabi.org/isc/datasheet/5386 Accessed 10/25/21
Evtushenko, L.I., Dorofeeva, L.V.,
Dobrovolskaya, T.G. and Subbotin, S.A., 1994. Coryneform bacteria from plant
galls induced by nematodes of the subfamily Anguininae. Russ J Nematol, 2,
Evtushenko, Lyudmila I., Lubov V.
Dorofeeva, Tatyana G. Dobrovolskaya, Galina M. Streshinskaya, Sergey A.
Subbotin, and James M. Tiedje. "Agreia bicolorata gen. nov., sp. nov., to
accommodate actinobacteria isolated from narrow reed grass infected by the
nematode Heteroanguina graminophila." International journal of systematic
and evolutionary microbiology 51, no. 6 (2001): 2073-2079.
Goodey, J. B., M. T. Franklin, and D. J. Hooper.
1965. T. Goodey's: The Nematode Parasites of Plants Catalogued Under Their
Hosts. Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux, Farnham Royal, Bucks, England.
Hooper, D.J. and Southey, J.F. 1978.
Ditylenchus, Anguina and related genera. In: Southey, J.F. (Ed.). Plant
nematology. London, UK, HMSO, pp. 78-97.
Jensen, H. J. 1961. Nematodes
Affecting Oregon Agriculture. Oregon State University, Corvallis.
Krall, E.L. 1991. Wheat and Grass
Nematodes: Anguina, Subanguina, and Related Genera. Pages 721-760 in: Manual
of Agricultural Nematology, W. Nickle, ed. CRC Press, New York, NY.
Kurochkina, K. G., and Chizhov, V.
N. 1980. [On the toxicity of Anguina agrostis galls to animals]. IX
Konferentsiya Ukrainskogo Parazitologicheskogo Obshchestva. Tezisy dokladov.
VIGIS Mosc. USSR 2:206 (In Russian).
Murray, T.D., Schroeder, B.K.,
Schneider, W.L., Luster, D.G., Sechler, A., Rogers, E.E. and Subbotin, S.A.,
2017. Rathayibacter toxicus, other Rathayibacter species inducing bacterial
head blight of grasses, and the potential for livestock poisonings.
Phytopathology, 107(7), pp.804-815.
Pinkerton, J. N., and S. C. Alderman. 1994.
Epidemiology of Anguina agrostis in highland colonial bentgrass. Journal of
Riddle, D. L., and A. F. Bird. 1985. Responses of
Anguina agrostis to detergent and anesthetic treatment. Journal of
Riley, 1987; International Journal of Systematic
Roubtsova, T.V. and Subbotin, S.A.,
2020. First report of the bent seed gall nematode, Anguina agrostis
(Steinbuch, 1799) Filipjev, 1936 from Poa palustris L. in Wyoming, USA.
Journal of Nematology, 52.
Roubtsova, T.V., Burbridge, J. and
Subbotin, S.A., 2020. Molecular characterisation and diagnostics of some
gall-forming nematodes of the family Anguinidae Nicoll, 1935 (Nematoda:
Tylenchida) using COI mtDNA. Russian Journal of Nematology, 28(2).
Scheck, H.J. 2021. California Pest Rating
Proposal for Anguina agrostis (Steinbuch, 1799) Filipjev, 1936 Bent grass
seed gall nematode. CDFA, Sacramento.
Siddiqui, I. A., S. A. Sher and A. M. French.
1973. Distribution of Plant Parasitic Nematodes in California. State of
California Department of Food and Agriculture, Division of Plant Industry.
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agrostis. CIH Descriptions of Plant-parasitic Nematodes Set, 2(20), p.3.
Stynes, B. A. and A. F. Bird. 1980. Anguina
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