Reported median body size for this species (Length mm; width micrometers; weight micrograms) - Click:
Europe, Australia, Canada, U.S. (especially Pacific Northwest), New Zealand, and
former Soviet Union.
pest in California Nematode Pest
37, 46, and 48% of orchard grass seed samples from the Willamette Valley of
Oregon during 1996, 1997, and 2000, respectively, containing Anguina
galls. The number of galls ranged from 1-24 per 25 g of grass seed
(Alderman et al., 2003).
Annual and perennial rye grasses and bent grasses.
The following are listed as hosts in various literature sources:
Similar to A. tritici, except that second stage hatches from
One generation produced per year. Seed gall ruptures when mucoprotein takes up water and expels nematodes. This corresponds to favorable conditions for germination of host seeds.
Nematodes can remain viable in dry, cigar-shaped galls for up to 10 years.
In Australia, a bacterium formerly considered to be Corynebacterium rathayi attaches to nematode cuticle and is carried into seed gall.
Corynebacterium rathayi is now reclassified as Clavibacter rathayi and the ryegrass toxicity organism is considered closely related
to but may be a new species of Clavibacter (Riley, 1987).
The bacterium outcompetes the nematode for resources in seed gall, increases,
and coats surface which becomes sticky and yellow; produces a neurotoxin that
causes convulsion and mortality in grazing animals, i.e., "Staggers." - term
used for the effect on sheep[ in Australia. The toxin is produced late in
season as the gall matures ( Bird
and Stynes, 1977).
Livestock poisoning is occasionally reported in the U.S., otherwise, majority of
the damage caused by the nematode results in reduction of seed yield.
The relationship between nematode and bacterium is similar to that between A. tritici and Clavibacter tritici that causes Tundu disease of wheat.
In grasses, seed galls are difficult to detect as they are covered by lemmas
and paleas. A small scarifier can be used to remove lemmas and paleas without
damage to seeds or galls. That allows visual identification of galls (Alderman
et al., 2003).
Host Plant Resistance, Non-hosts
Alderman SC, Bilsland DM, Griesbach JA, Milbrath GM, Schaad NW, Postnikova E.
2003. Use of a seed scarifier for detection and enumeration of galls of
Rathayibacter species in orchard grass seed. Plant
Bird, A.F., Stynes, B.A. 1977.
The morphology of a
sp. parasitic on annual ryegrass Phytopathology 67:828-830.
CIH Descriptions of Plant-parasitic Nematodes, Set 2, No. 20 (1973)
Riley, 1987; International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology 35:153-159
Goodey, J. B., M. T. Franklin, and D. J. Hooper. 1965.
T. Goodey's: The Nematode Parasites of Plants Catalogued Under Their
Hosts. Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux, Farnham Royal, Bucks, England.
Siddiqui, I. A., S. A. Sher and A. M. French. 1973.
Distribution of Plant Parasitic Nematodes in California. State of
California Department of Food and Agriculture, Division of Plant
Pinkerton, J. N., and S. C. Alderman. 1994.
Epidemiology of Anguina agrostis in highland colonial bentgrass.
Journal of Nematology 26:315-323.
Stynes, B. A. and A. F. Bird. 1980.
Anguina agrostis, the vector of annual rye grass
toxicity in Australia. Nematologica 26:475-490.
Riddle, D. L., and A. F. Bird. 1985.
Responses of Anquina agrostis to detergent and
anesthetic treatment. Journal of Nematology 17:165-168.