Reported median body size for this species (Length mm; width micrometers; weight micrograms) - Click:
Reported from Australia; South Africa and Japan; also from Oregon, USA.
Probably spread and distributedf through contaminated seed.
A-rated pest in California.
Causes direct damage through parasitism and formation of seed
galls. Importance is increased because it is a vector of the toxigenic
actinomycete bacterium, Rathyibacter toxicus that
causes Rathayibacter poisoning (annual
ryegrass toxicity) to herbivores grazing on the grass (Murray et
al., 2014; Riley & Barbetti, 2008).
The bacterium is also vectored by other Anguina species,
including A. agrostis, A.
australis, and A.
paludicola (Murray et al., 2014;
The following are listed as hosts in various literature sources:
The following are listed as nonhosts or resistant in various literature sources:
Mature seed galls indiced by the nematode contain
second-stage juveniles (J2) in an anhydrobiotic state. Under moist
conditionsd, the J2 become active, emerge from degrading galls into the
soil. If the soil becomes dry, the juveniles again become
anhydrobiotic until another period of rehydration. Active juveniles seek
and invade host seedlings and feed on the meristem tissues of tillers where
they accumulate until development of seed is initiated. Then they invade
the inflorescence and transform developing seed into seed galls. J2 feed
within galls, and develop through two further juvenile stages into adults.
The induced seed gall may be infested with up to 20 male and female
nematodes. Sexual reproduction occurs within the galls and several
hundred eggs are produced per gall. As infested plants mature and senesce,
J2s enter ther anhydrobiotic survival stage.
During agriculyural operations, seed galls are
harvested and replanted along with healthy seed. During harvest, galls fall
to the ground and remain there until the nematodes regain activity under
moist sconditions, thus completing the cycle.
Direct damage through conversion of seed to galls and as a vector
Rathayibacter cwith toxic effects in grazing livestock. The toxicogenic
bacteria ARE Carried to seed galls by adhering to the nematode cuticle.
Host Plant Resistance, Non-hosts and Crop Rotation alternatives:
Biological Control Possibilities:
Anguina species are vectors of the fungus, Dilophospora
alopecuri which inhibits gall formation and bacterial
colonization thereby providing biological control of both nematode and
bacterium. Rathyibacter toxicus and Dilophospora
alopecuri are transported to the plant host by adhering to
the external cuticular surface of A. funesta
Chitambar, J. 2017.
California Pest Rating forAnguina
Fisher & Kerr, 1979. CDFA, Sacramento, California, USA.
Fisher, J. M., A. C. McKay and A. J. Dube. 1984. Observations on
growth of adults of Anguina funesta (Nematoda:Anguinidae).
Murray, T. D., I. Agarkova, S. Alderman, J. Allen, R. Bulluck, J.
Chitambar, C. Divan, I. Riley, B. Schroeder, A. Sechler, and S. Subbotin.
2014. Recovery Plan for Rathayibacter Poisoning
caused by Rathayibacter toxicus (syn. Clavibacter
toxicus) National Plant Disease Recovery System, a
cooperative project of The American Phytopathological Society and The United
States Department of Agriculture, posted
Riley, I. T., T. B. Reardon, and A. C. McKay. 1988.
Electrophoretic resolution of species boundaries in seed-gall
nematodes, Anguina spp. (Nematoda:Anguinidae)from some
graminaceous hosts in Australia and New Zealand. Nematologica
Riley, I. T. and Barbetti, M. J.
2008. Australian anguinids: their agricultural impact and control.
Australasian Plant Pathology 37:289-297.
Riley, I. T. and McKay, A. C.
1990. Specificity of the adhesion of some plant pathogenic
microorganisms to the cuticle of nematodes in the genus Anguina (Nematoda:
Anguinidae). Nematologica 36:90-103.
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