Reported median body size for this species (Length mm; width micrometers; weight micrograms) - Click:
South-central and eastern U.S. from Virginia south to Florida (limited
distribution in Connecticut, New Jersey, Louisiana, Texas, and Alabama).
Migratory ectoparasite at root tip and along sides. Long stylet
penetrates to inner cortex and endodermis; causes root tip damage,
resulting in reduced root system with short, stubby branches.
Wide host range: peanut, corn, cotton, tomato, squash, grasses
Tobacco is a non-host.
Nematode prefers light, sandy soils.
Damage caused by this nematode results mainly from devitalized
and the usual symptoms are plant wilting, stubby and/or coarse
necrosis and discoloration occur less frequently. Standifier
reported B. gracilis produced lesions on bean roots
which extended into
the stele, destroying xylem and phloem.
Nematode also causes plants to be more susceptible to damage
1. Rotation - additional work needed in this area - rotation to tobacco,
coupled with clean cultivation, reduces population of B. gracilis.
Host Plant Resistance, Non-hosts and Crop Rotation alternatives:
2. Soil fumigation with 1,3-Dichloropropene
(Telone) and ethylene dibromide (EDB)
was effective. Holdeman (year?) reported EDB fumigants was more effective than
1,3-D (then D-D mixture) for controlling sting nematode in South Carolina.