Belonolaimus gracilis

 

Contents

 

Rev 11/19/19

  Classification Hosts
Morphology and Anatomy Life Cycle
Return to Belonolaimus Menu Economic Importance Damage
Distribution Management
Return to Dolichodoridae Menu Feeding    
    Go to Nemaplex Main Menu   Go to Dictionary of Terminology
    

Classification:

Rhabditida
       Tylenchina
        Tylenchoidea
         Dolichodoridae
            Belonolaiminae   

          Belonolaimus gracilis

     Synonyms:
      none.

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Morphology and Anatomy:

  Nematode is 2.0-3.0mm long; has long stylet. B. gracilis is distinguished from B. longicaudatus by shorter tail, longer spear, and greater relative width.

 

Reported median body size for this species (Length mm; width micrometers; weight micrograms) - Click:

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Distribution:

  
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Economic Importance:

      South-central and eastern U.S. from Virginia south to Florida (limited 
      distribution in Connecticut, New Jersey, Louisiana, Texas, and Alabama).
       
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Feeding:

      Migratory ectoparasite at root tip and along sides.  Long stylet 
      penetrates to inner cortex and endodermis; causes root tip damage, 
      resulting in reduced root system with short, stubby branches.  
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Hosts:

Wide host range: peanut, corn, cotton, tomato, squash, grasses on turf.
Tobacco is a non-host.

 

For an extensive host range list for this species, click
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Life Cycle:

Ecophysiological Parameters:

For Ecophysiological Parameters for this species, click If species level data are not available, click for genus level parameters

 

Nematode prefers light, sandy soils.

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Damage:

Damage caused by this nematode results mainly from devitalized root tips,
and the usual symptoms are plant wilting, stubby and/or coarse roots;
necrosis and discoloration occur less frequently. Standifier (1959)
reported B. gracilis produced lesions on bean roots which extended into
the stele, destroying xylem and phloem.

Nematode also causes plants to be more susceptible to damage from Fusarium.

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Management:

1. Rotation - additional work needed in this area - rotation to tobacco, coupled with clean cultivation, reduces population of B. gracilis.

Host Plant Resistance, Non-hosts and Crop Rotation alternatives:

For plants reported to have some level of resistance to this species, click

2. Soil fumigation with 1,3-Dichloropropene (Telone) and ethylene dibromide (EDB) was effective. Holdeman (year?) reported EDB fumigants was more effective than 1,3-D (then D-D mixture) for controlling sting nematode in South Carolina.

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Copyright © 1999 by Howard Ferris.
Revised: November 19, 2019.