Belonolaimus longicaudatus Rau, 1958
Lip region hemispherical, divided bylateral,
dorsal, and ventral grooves into 4 main lobes (2
subdorsal and 2 subventral) each bearing 6 or more
horizontal striations; two smaller lobes (lateral)
apertures. Lip region generally set off from body
by deep constriction, but this may be less marked in some
populations. Labial morphology as revealed by SEM is
discussed in Smart et al. (1972).
field marked by a single incisure extending
from base of lip region to near tail terminus.
Spear 100-140 Âµm, thin, flexible, with rounded knobs;
when retracted, spear causes the esophageal tube to
pore posterior to median bulb with hemizonid
just anterior to it.
glands lobe-like extending over anterior
end of intestine.
Vulva a transverse slit, vulval lips not protruding,
vagina generally with opposing pair of sclerotized pieces
in lateral view; two ovaries, amphidelphic, outstretched.
Tail 115-189 Âµm long, generally about 5 times anal
body width, with rounded terminus. Hyaline portion 5.9 Âµm long. Phasmids
inconspicuous. Intestine extending almost to terminus. There are well pronounced serpentine
lateral canals present which become visible at about the
level of esophageal gland lobe and extend to the tail
Reported median body size for this species (Length mm; width micrometers; weight micrograms) - Click:
Lip region in outline more
flattened at the sides than in female; arrangement of
outstretched. Spicules arcuate with ventral
flanges; distal ends pointed with small apical notches. Gubernaculum
well developed. Bursa enveloping tail.
is distinguished from B. longicaudatus by
shorter tail, longer spear, and greater relative width.
Different populations of B. longicaudatus show
variations in spear knob shape, head shape, size and
ratios, shape of spicules, and in vulva sclerotization.
All populations have 8 chromosomes.
[Ref: CIH Descriptions of Plant-parasitic Nematodes,
Set 3, No. 40 (1974) and H. Ferris.]
A plant-parasitic nematode of major importance in the southeastern U.S. Reported in
Alabama, Arkansas, North and South Carolina, Louisiana, Mississippi, Florida,
Kansas, Virginia, New Jersey and Oklahoma. In North-central Florida, 35,000 acres of
vegetable land are infested. Nematode not reported outside of
In 1992, a 3-4 acre infestation was found at a golf course near
Springs in Southern California, further sampling has located the
on four golf courses in the Rancho Mirage area of Coachella
Disatribution of this nematode in several areas is probably attributable to
the import of movement of turf to establish golf courses.
in California Nematode Pest Rating System.
The infestation in Rancho Mirage, California, triggered eradication or containment
legislation to reduce the danger of movement into surrounding agricultural
Sting nematodes became a widespread problem in Florida's citrus industry
following a series of freezes between 1983 and1990. Many orchards had to
be re-planted. Since soils were heavily infested with sting nematode,
young trees were severely stunted.
ectoparasite at root tip and along sides.
Long stylet penetrates to inner cortex and endodermis; causes root tip
damage, resulting in reduced root system with short, stubby branches.
Gall-like swellings may occur at root tips in corn due to repeated
production of new root branches.
Feeding causes lesions on cotton roots, followed by root girdling.
Wide host range: cereals, vegetables, celery, sweet corn, strawberries, cotton, forage crops,
trees, ornamentals, turf (excellent host), and pasture.
Tobacco is a non-host.
North Carolina populations have distinctly different host ranges, although
some hosts are suitable for these and other populations.
Of 60 plant species tested for host status to the B. longicaudatus
population in the Coachella Valley of California, only three were non hosts (Bekal and Becker).
This nematode prefers light, sandy soils (>80% sand with
particle size 120 to
320 Âµm [65 mesh], 10% clay); B. longicaudatus does not
reproduce well in
soils with a composition outside these parameters.
Reproduction is inhibited in soils with large amounts of
Soil moisture is also important; optimum reproduction occurs
at 7% soil moisture; some
reproduction occurs at 3% soil moisture; reproduction and
inhibited at 30% moisture (Robbins, 1973?). Population densities are directly
related to the percent sand in many soils soil (Mashela et al., 1992).
Aeration of water
survival of nematodes at 30% moisture, suggesting that soil
be very important (Robbins, 1973?).
The effect of temperature has also been studied; at 35 C,
Georgia populations of B. longicaudatus survived, but
North Carolina populations did not; at 25 to 30 C, both Georgia
North Carolina populations flourished (Robbins, 1973?).
Males and females are present, but life history details are
not well understood.
In general, nematodes are confined to the upper 30 cm of soil,
this zone there is vertical and seasonal fluctuation depending on
temperature. High air temperatures force nematodes deeper into
while lower surface temperatures result in a higher concentration
nematodes in the surface layers, with little or no increase below
Evidence of genetic diversity is provided by reproductive compatibility among
Devastating on cotton - causes complete crop failures when
with Fusarium wilt; renders Fusarium wilt-resistant cotton
Also causes damage to vegetables, peanuts, and soybeans in the
Southeastern coastal plains. Infected plants show an increased
to wilt in dry conditions, severe stunting, leaf chlorosis; plant
Belonolaimus longicaudatus damage to peanuts
(left), nematode-free control on right.
Belonolaimus longicaudatus damage to bermuda
Most destructive pest of turfgrass in Florida (Busey et al., 1991).
Infested areas vary in size and shape, but the
between diseased and healthy plants is usually well-defined.
and carbamate nematicides are effective. ethylene dibromide (EDB)
at 10 gpa also was used on peanuts and other crops. Use of granular
nematicides such as Aldicarb
and Nemacur is
successful in controlling nematode populations.
2. Crop rotation
Crop rotation is less effective due to wide host-range of the nematode.
3. Cultural Methods
Tomerlin (1969) found that numbers of B. longicaudatus were reduced in
soils amended with alfalfa meal, cottonseed meal, and rice straw.
Heald & Burton (1968) reported that application of organic nitrogen
(activated sewage sludge) reduced populations of B. longicaudatus on
bermuda grass and was superior to inorganic nitrogen.
Host Plant Resistance, Non-hosts and Crop Rotation alternatives: