Belonolaimus gracilis




Rev 09/12/23

  Classification Hosts
Morphology and Anatomy Life Cycle
Return to Belonolaimus Menu Economic Importance Damage
Distribution Management
Return to Dolichodoridae Menu Feeding    
    Go to Nemaplex Main Menu   Go to Dictionary of Terminology



          Belonolaimus gracilis Steiner, 1949

Type species of the genus


Back to Top

Morphology and Anatomy:

  Nematode is 2.0-3.0mm long; has long stylet. B. gracilis is distinguished from B. longicaudatus by shorter tail, longer spear, and greater relative width.


Reported median body size for this species (Length mm; width micrometers; weight micrograms) - Click:

Back to Top


Back to Top

Economic Importance:

      South-central and eastern U.S. from Virginia south to Florida (limited
      distribution in Connecticut, New Jersey, Louisiana, Texas, and Alabama).

Back to Top


      Migratory ectoparasite at root tip and along sides.  Long stylet
      penetrates to inner cortex and endodermis; causes root tip damage,
      resulting in reduced root system with short, stubby branches. 

Back to Top


Wide host range: peanut, corn, cotton, tomato, squash, grasses on turf.
Tobacco is a non-host.


For an extensive host range list for this species, click
Back to Top

Life Cycle:

Ecophysiological Parameters:

For Ecophysiological Parameters for this species, click If species level data are not available, click for genus level parameters


Nematode prefers light, sandy soils.

Back to Top


Damage caused by this nematode results mainly from devitalized root tips,
and the usual symptoms are plant wilting, stubby and/or coarse roots;
necrosis and discoloration occur less frequently. Standifier (1959)
reported B. gracilis produced lesions on bean roots which extended into
the stele, destroying xylem and phloem.

Nematode also causes plants to be more susceptible to damage from Fusarium.

Back to Top


1. Rotation - additional work needed in this area - rotation to tobacco, coupled with clean cultivation, reduces population of B. gracilis.

Host Plant Resistance, Non-hosts and Crop Rotation alternatives:

For plants reported to have some level of resistance to this species, click

2. Soil fumigation with 1,3-Dichloropropene (Telone) and ethylene dibromide (EDB) was effective. Holdeman (year?) reported EDB fumigants was more effective than 1,3-D (then D-D mixture) for controlling sting nematode in South Carolina.

Back to Top


Steiner, G. 1949. Plant nematodes the grower should know. Proceedings of the Soil Science Society of Florida 4-B (1942):72-117.


Back to Top

Copyright © 1999 by Howard Ferris.
Revised: September 12, 2023.