Rev 01/11/2020

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           Pararotylenchus (Baldwin & Bell, 1981)


The separation of Rotylenchus and Pararotylenchus was based on several factors, peraps the most important being that the esophageal glands in Pararotylenchus are enclosed in a terminal bulb rather that ovrlapping the intestine (Baldwin and Bell, 1981).  Brzeski and Choi (1998) rejected the importance of that distinction and proposed the synonymization of Rotylenchus and Pararotylenchulus.

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Morphology and Anatomy:


  • Body spiral to C-shaped. 
  • Labial region annulated; oral opening slit-like; round labial disc present.
  • Amphid apertures elongate at lateral edge of disc.
  • First lip annule divided into six lip sectors; lateral sectors smaller than the others (SEM). 
  • Lateral field with four lines.  
  • Labial framework, stylet and stylet knobs average-sized for the family; knobs round to indented.  
  • Dorsal esophageal gland opening about 4.0-7.0 µm from stylet base.  
  • Esophageal glands not overlapping intestine, symmetrically arranged around esophageal lumen. 


  • Two genital branches outstretched, equally developed. 
  • Epitygma double, present.  
  • Tail short, of variable shape, usually more curved on dorsal side.
  • Phasmids small, pore-like, near level of anus.  
 Pararotylenchus blothrotylus A) Entire male (lateral). B) Entire female (lateral). C) Cephalic and esophagus region of female (lateral). D) Labial region of female (en [ace). E) Tail of female (lateral). F) Vulva (lateral). G) Spicule and gubernaculum (lateral). (from Baldwin and Bell, 1981).


Body size range for the species of this genus in the database - Click:
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Economic Importance:

D-rated pest in California Nematode Pest Rating System.

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For an extensive host range list for this genus, click
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Life Cycle:

For Ecophysiological Parameters for this genus, click 
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Baldwin, J.G. and A.H. Bell. 1981. Pararotylenchus n. gen.(Pararotylenchinae n. subfam., Hoplolaimidae) with six new species and two new combinations. J. Nematology 13:111-128.

Brzeski, M.W, and Choi, Y.E. 1998. Synonymisation of Rotylenchus Filipjev, 1936 and Pararotylenchus Baldwin & Bell, 1981 (Nematoda: Hoplolaimidae). Nematologica 44: 45-48.

Fortuner, Rev. Nematol. 10(2):219-232 (1987).

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Copyright © 1999 by Howard Ferris.
Revised: January 11, 2020.