Anguina pacificae




Rev 12/10/2019

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              Anguina pacificae  Cid del Prado Vera & Maggenti, 1984


Anguina pacificae was synonymized with A. agropyri by Chizhov and Subbotin (1990) based on the identification af a nematode parasitizing Poa in Russia as A. agropyri (the documented host range of A. agropyri is in the grass genus Agropyron while that of A. pacificae is in the grass genus Poa).  However, the A. pacificae is still being used in some recent literature, e.g. McClure et al., 2008.

Recent molecular analyses of A. pacificae from California and A. agropyri from Europe indicate differences in the ITS region and suggest that A. pacificae is distributed in Califonia and perhaps Russia while and A. agropyri is in Europe only (Sergei Subbotin, pers. comm.).. Note that A. pacificae has also been indentified in Ireland (Fleming, 2015).


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Morphology and Anatomy:



Anguina pacificae female  Females 

1.44-2.58 mm long. C-shaped when dead.  Four lines in lateral field.  Tail conical to a sharp point.

Stylet short (8.9-12.4 µm), esophageal glands do not appear to overlap intestine.

Vulva at 82-89%.  Monovarial, prodelphic ovary may have one or two flexures and extends to base of esophagus Post-uterine sac present. 


1.22-1.84 mm long.  

Caudal alae and gubernaculum present.

Anguina pacificae J2

Anguina pacificae male

Anguina pacificae: male tail, caudal alae, spicules

Photograph: I. Cid del Prado

Reported median body size for this species (Length mm; width micrometers; weight micrograms) - Click:


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Anguina pacificae was found on grasses by Larry Costello (UC farm advisor) on Poa annua in 1978. It was described by Cid del Prado Vera and Maggenti in 1984.

It is reported from central coast golf courses in San Francisco, San Mateo and Monterey Counties.

As of 2001, golf course superintendents report that individual golf courses severely affected include Pebble Beach, Cypress Point, the Olympic Club, San Francisco Golf Club, and many other prominent courses.

  from McClure et al. (2008)

In 2015, Anguina pacificae was reported and confirmed infesting annual bluegrass (Poa annua) in County Dublin, Ireland (Fleming et al., 2015).

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Economic Importance:

Damaging on golf courses, considered a serious problem by greens managers.


from McClure et al., 2008  
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Endoparasite in stem galls


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 Poa annua L., bluegrass.


For an extensive host range list for this species, click

 Several grass and cereal cultivars were tested for susceptibility to the A. pacificae, Dublin population. Of all the cultivars examined, only the P. annua and Velvet bentgrass (A. canina) had observable stem galls containing viable eggs. The other cultivars examined showed no galling; P. pratensis cv. Creon, Highland browntop bent (A. tenuis), F. rubra cv. Lucinda, Triticum aestivum var. Einstein, Triticum aestivum var. Alchemy, Hordeum vulgare var. Suzuka, and Hordeum vulgare var. Saffron. (Fleming et al., 2015).

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Life Cycle:

Ecophysiological Parameters:

For Ecophysiological Parameters for this species, click If species level data are not available, click for genus level parameters

The nematode induces green galls at stem bases. Galls may contain several adults and hundreds of juveniles and eggs. It does not attack the inflorescence (and presumably does not form seed galls, which might limit its spread). 

Mature galls may be filled with bacteria, which appears as a white cream. That is reminiscent of the association between Anguina spp. and Clavibacter spp. in wheat and ryegrass.


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Stem and leaf distortion, stem galls.

photograph: Ignacio Cid del Prado Vera

Nematode development in galls at stem bases at indicated days after infection (DAI) - from McClure et al. (2008)


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I need to confirm my recollection of the following:

[I think Win Hart did some work. Also, I remember Viglierchio andYamashita, Frances Wu and maybe Steve Brown doing some sampling and nematicide (?Nemacur or Furadan) trials during which they also ran into a cyst nematode in the golf courses. [I may have invented the last factoid, but there may be some reference to it in those papers by Viglierchio and Yamashita in Revue de Nematologie.]]

Host Plant Resistance, Non-hosts and Crop Rotation alternatives:

For plants reported to have some level of resistance to this species, click
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Cid del Prado Vera, I. and A.R. Maggenti.  1984. A new gall-forming species of Anguina Scopoli, 1777 (Nemata Anguinidae) on bluegrass, Poa annua L., from the coast of California. J. Nematol. 16:386-392.

Chizhov, V.N. & Subbotin, S.A. 1990. [Phytoparasitic nematodes of subfamily Anguininae (Nematoda, Tylenchida). Morphology, trophic specialization, taxonomic]. Zoologichesky Zhurnal 69, 4: 15-26 (in Russian)

Fleming, T.R., A.G. Maule, T. Martin, M. Hainon-McDowell, K. Entwistle, M.A. McClure, C.C. Fleming. 2015. A First Report of Anguina pacificae in Ireland. Journal of Nematology 47:97-105.

McClure, M.A., Schmitt, M.E., McCullough, M.D. 2008. Distribution, Biology and Pathology of Anguina pacificae. J Nematol. 40: 226–239.


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Copyright © 1999 by Howard Ferris.
Revised: December 10, 2019.