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Hirschmanniella Luc and Goodey, 1964
Hirschmannia Luc and Goodey, 1962
Classified in the
Pratylenchinae because of the long ventral overlap and lack of
Nematode is 0.9-4.2 mm long, is slender, amphidelphic.
area flattened anteriorly to hemispherical, not set-off. Lip sectors and labial
disc often fused.
Labial sclerotization strong.
glands in line, with a long ventral overlap of the
[Ref: Luc, (1987) and H. Ferris]
Tail length three or more times anal body diameter,
usually terminating in a point or mucro.
situated in posterior third of the tail.
A Polytomous Key to species of the genus
(adapted from Kuhn et al (2015).
Definition of Characters in the Key:
Character A Lip region 1)
Hemispherical; 2) Not hemispherical
Character B Tail terminus
shape. 1) Pointed or round terminus with a mucro, 2) Pointed terminus with
subterminal notch , 3) Pointed or round terminus with or without a
Character C Number of mucro or
projection. 1) No or single mucro or projection; 2) Two or more mucros or
Character D Position of mucro
or projection. 1) Axial position 2) Ventral position
Character E Position SE pore with
respect to the PIJ. 1) SE pore anterior to PIJ; 2) SE pore about same level
as PIJ; 3) SE pore posterior to PIJ.
Character F Stylet length. 1) Stylet
= 18.5 μm or shorter; 2) Stylet = 18.6-25.0 μm; 3) Stylet = 25.1-32.0 μm; 4)
Stylet = 32.1-39.9 μm; 5) Stylet = 40 μm or longer.
Character G Body length. 1) L = 1600
μm or shorter; 2) L = 1601- 2500 μm; 3) L = 2501-3000 μm; 4) L = 3001 μm or
Character H Ratio c . 1) c = 3.0 or
lower; 2) c = 3.1-4.9; 3) c = 5.0-6.9; 4) c = 7.0-8.9; 5) c = 9.0 or higher.
Character I The number of ventral
annules from phasmids to tail terminus. 1) 14 annules or lower; 2) 15-24
annules; 3) 25- 34 annules; 4) 35 annules or higher.
Character J Spicule length. 1) 27 μm
or shorter; 2) 28-40 μm; 3) 41 μm or longer.
Character K Geographical
distribution. 1) Europe; 2) Africa; 3) North America; 4) South and Central
America, including the Caribbean; 5) Asia; 6) Oceania. B
Interpretation of character states F-J: the first
digit represents the reported mean value, the second represents the minimum
value and the third represents the maximum value.
Interpretation of character states E and K: the first
digit represents the most frequent state of the character and the other
digits represent alternative states of the charaxcter in decreasing
Character states that are rare exceptions are
indicated in parentheses; superscripts a and b indicate characters derived
from drawings in the original description or from voucher specimens.
Polytomous Key is from Kuhn et al (2015).
Generally, the species of this genus are associated with grassy plants
growing in wet or aquatic conditions, e.g., rice, reeds, sedges.Lake bottom (reeds).
Locally the genus is reported from several locations, including reeds near Tulelake, reeds along ditches in Yolo
County, paddy rice, Santa Ana River (southern California).
In Europe, five Hirschmanniella species
were reported: as of 2010: H. gracilis (Sweden,
Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, Austria, Romania, Russia,
Poland, H. loofi (the
Netherlands, Belgium, Poland, Germany, H. oryzae (Georgia)
and H. behningi (Russia:
Volga river basin, Poland, Sweden: ), and
H. zostericola (Sweden)
(Ryss and Karnkowski, 2010).
Nematodes of the genus Hirschmanniella differ
significantly in their morphological features and habitat from other
plant‐parasitic nematodes. They are parasites of roots, stems and leaves of
water‐inhabiting vascular plants and the roots of higher plants growing in
temporarily flooded and swampy soils. Some species are pathogenic to rice and
sugar cane in subtropical and tropical regions.
in California Nematode Pest Rating System, except for
H. oryzae, which is A-rated.
The genus Hirschmanniella is considered one of the most
important nematode pests of rice. Several species cause serious economic
problems in lowland rice in Southeast Asia ( Bridge et al., 1990; Prot et
al., 1994; Karssen, 2009; Maung et al., 2010; Win et al., 2013).
Hirschmanniella oryzae reduced tiller growth by 50-60% in
transplanted rice seedlings and reduced yield by >25% (Ou, 1985; Jairajpuri
& Baqri, 1991).
More than half of the known Hirschmanniella species have been
reported as pests of rice while several other species are reported from
other crops, including taro (Bridge et al., 1983), cabbage (Duan et al.,
1996), maize, tomato and sugarcane (Bridge et al., 1990).
Some Hirschmanniella species have been recorded from marine environments
as parasites of aquatic plants including Diplanthera wrightii (Sher,
1968) and Ceratophyllum demersum (Gerber & Smart, 1987).
Most species of Hirscmanniella are quarantine pests for the
European Union (Khun et al., 2015). With
the exception of H. gracilis (De
Man, 1880) which occurs widely in Europe, nematodes of the genus Hirschmanniella,have
been recognized as EU quarantine pests . Additionally, H.
oryzae is a quarantine pest of the Caribbean Plant
Protection Commission and of Brazil, whilst H. spinicaudata is
recognized as a quarantine pest of the Asia and Pacific Plant Protection
(Ryss and Karnkowski, 2010).
Rice, reeds, common cattail (Typha latifolia).
Sexually reproducing, sex ratio is about 1:1.
Bridge, J., Mortimer, J.J. & Jackson, G.V.H. (1983). Hirschmanniella
miticausa n. sp. (Nematoda: Pratylenchidae) and its pathogenicity on taro
(Colocasia esculenta). Revue de Nï¿½matologie 6, 285-290
Bridge, J., Luc, M. & Plowright, R.A. (1990). Nematode parasites of rice.
In: Luc, M., Sikora, R.A. & Bridge, J. (Eds). Plant parasitic nematodes in
subtropical and tropical agriculture. Wallingford, UK, CAB International,
pp. 69- 108.
Duan, Y., Liu, W., Liu, Y. & Zhao, H. (1996). A new species of
Hirschmanniella (Pratylenchidae) associated with the Brassicae (Brassica
oleracea var. capitata). Journal of Shenyang Agricultural University 3,
Gerber, K. & Smart, G.C. (1987). Effect of Hirschmanniella caudacrena on
the submersed aquatic plants Ceratophyllum demersum and Hydrilla
verticillata. Journal of Nematology 19, 447-453..
Jairajpuri, M.S. & Baqri, Q.H. (1991). Nematode pests of rice. New Delhi,
India, Oxford & IBH Publishing.
Karssen, G. (2009). Hirschmanniella spp. EPPO Bulletin 39, 369-375.
Khun, K., Decraemer, W., Couvreur, M., Karssen, G., Steel, H., Bert, W.
2015. Deceptive morphological variation in Hirschmanniella mucronata
(Nematoda: Pratylenchidae) and a polytomous key to the genus. Nematology 17:
Luc, M. & Goodey, J.B. (1962). Hirschmannia n. g. differentiated from
Radopholus Thorne, 1949 (Nematoda: Tylenchoidea). Nematologica 7, 197-202.
Luc, M. & Goodey, J.B. (1964). Hirschmanniella nom. nov. for
Hirschmannia. Nematologica 9(1963), 471-471.
Luc, Rev. Nematol. 10(2):203-218 (1987)
Maung, Z.T.Z., Kyi, P.P., Myint, Y.Y., Lwin, T. & De Waele, D. (2010).
Occurrence of the rice root nematode Hirschmanniella oryzae on monsoon rice
in Myanmar. Tropical Plant Pathology 35, 3-10.
Ou, S.H. (1985). Diseases caused by nematodes. In: Ou, S.H. (Ed.). Rice
diseases, 2nd edition. Wallingford, UK, CABI Publishing, pp. 337-364.
Prejs, K. 1986. Occurrence of stylet-bearing nematodes associated with
aquatic vascular plants. Ekologia Polsaka 34:185-192.
Prot, J.C., Soriano, I.R.S. & Matias, D.M. (1994). Major rootparasitic
nematodes associated with irrigated rice in the Philippines. Fundamental and
Applied Nematology 17, 75- 78.
Photomicrographs by H. Ferris and John Chitambar, CDFA
Ryss, A.Y. and Karnkowski, W. 2010. Hirschmanniella caudacrena Sher
(1968) intercepted in aquarium plants imported to Poland. EPPO Bulletin
Sher, S.A. (1968). Revision of the genus Hirschmanniella Luc & Goodey
1963 (Nematoda: Tylenchoidea). Nematologica 14, 243-275.
Win, P.P., Kyi, P.P., Maung, Z.T.Z. & De Waele, D. (2013). Population
dynamics of Meloidogyne graminicola and Hirschmanniella oryzae in a double
rice-cropping sequence in the lowlands of Myanmar. Nematology 15, 795-807.