Key to the Families and Genera of the Order Dorylaimida

Adapted from Andrassy (2009) by Howard Ferris (November, 2014)

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1

a

Stoma with subventral mural tooth, stoma wide, cardia with 3 gland cells

Nygolaimina

2

b

Stoma with axial odontostyle, stoma narrow, cardia small, without gland cells

Dorylaimina

17

2

Nygolaimina Ahmad & Jairajpuri, 1979

 

 

Nygolaimoidea Thorne, 1935

 

 

a

Female reproductive system monovarial, opisthodelphic; basal part of esophagus with a sheath of spiral muscles

Nygellidae

4

b

Female reproductive system diovarial, amphidelphic; basal part of esophagus with a thin muscle sheath which is difficult to discern

 

3

3

a

Anterior part of stoma bowl-shaped and sclerotized

Aetholaimidae

5

b

Anterior part of stoma simple, without sclerotization

Nygolaimidae

6

4

Nygellidae Andrassy, 1958

 

 

Nygelliinae Andrassy, 1958

 

 

a

Body length < 1.4 mm; cuticle thin with fine transverse striations; lip region continuous with body contour

Nygellus Thorne, 1939

 

5

Aetholaimidae Jairajpuri, 1965

 

 

Aetholaimiinae Jairajpuri, 1965

 

 

a

Body length < 1.4 mm; cuticle thin with fine transverse striations

Aetholaimus Williams, 1962

 

6

Nygolaimidae Thorne, 1935

 

 

a

Basal part < 1/2 of esophagus length; esophageal gland nuclei not enlarged; cardia with 3 small transversely-ovoid glands; vulva transverse; , no paravulvae

Nygolaiminae

7

b

Basal part < 1/2 of esophagus length; esophageal gland nuclei enlarged and readily visible; cardia with 3 longitudinally-ovoid glands; vulva longitudinal; ventral adanal region with papillae or pores (paravulvae)

Paravulvinae

15

c

Basal part about 2/3 of esophagus length; cardial disk, no cardia glands; vulva transverse, no paravulvae

Nygolaimellinae

16

7

Nygolaiminae Thorne, 1935

 

 

a

Mural tooth needle-like, no lumen

 

8

b

Mural tooth deltoid, linear or dorylaimoid, with lumen

 

10

8

a

Tail elongate with clavate terminus

Clavicauda Heyns, 1968

 

b

Tail short and bluntly rounded, not clavate

 

9

9

a

Labial region offset by a constriction, anterior body contour not continuous

Solididens Heyns, 1968

 

b

Labial region continuous with body contour

Feroxides Heyns, 1968

 

10

a

Tail long, elongate-conoid, ventrally arcuate

Afronygus Heyns, 1968

 

b

Tail short, convex-conoid to rounded, or clavate

 

11

11

a

Tooth dorylaimoid with dorsal aperture

Laevides Heyns, 1968

 

b

Tooth deltoid or linear, without aperture

 

12

12

a

Labial region offset by a constriction, anterior body contour not continuous; tooth deltoid

 

13

b

Labial region continuous with body contour; tooth deltoid or linear

 

14

13

a

Male with prominent ventromedian supplements and gubernaculum

Paranygolaimus Heyns, 1968

 

b

Male with weak ventromedian supplements; gubernaculum absent

Nygolaimus Cobb, 1913

 

14

a

Tooth linear, tail convex-conoid or rounded

Aquatides Heyns, 1968

 

b

Tooth deltoid or linear, tail rounded to clavate

Clavicaudoides Heyns, 1968

 

15

Paravulvinae Ahmad & Jairajpuri, 1968

 

 

a

Vulva longitudinal; cardia glands longitudinally ovoid

Paravulvus Heyns, 1968

 

16

Nygolaimellinae Clark, 1961

 

 

a

Basal part about 2/3 of esophagus length; cardial disk, no cardia glands; vulva transverse

Nygolaimellus Loos, 1949

 

17

Dorylaimina Pearse, 1936

 

 

a

Odontostyle usually < 2x lip width; anterior section of esophagus slender but muscular; posterior without muscular sheath; 5 esophageal nuclei

Dorylaimoidea

18

b

Odontostyle very long and slender; anterior section of esophagus slender not muscular; posterior without muscular sheath; 3 esophageal nuclei

Longidoroidea

153

c

Odontostyle usually about 1x lip width; anterior section of esophagus slender but muscular, posterior surrounded by muscular sheath; 5 esophageal nuclei

Belondiroidea

160

d

Odontostyle usually 1-2x lip width; anterior section of esophagus

muscular, posterior section a short bulb without muscular sheath; 5 esophageal nuclei

Tylencholaimoidea

195

18

Dorylaimoidea de Man, 1876

 

 

a

Stoma with 4 large onchia surrounding odontostyle

Actinolaimidae

26

b

Stoma without large onchia

 

19

19

a

Cuticle with numerous conspicuous pores with sclerotized ducts

Crateronematidae

42

b

Cuticle without pores with sclerotized ducts

 

20

20

a

Anterior of body strongly tapered to a small head; subcuticular glands present

Paraxonchiidae

49

b

Anterior of body gently tapered to a normal dorylaimid head; subcuticular glands absent

 

21

21

a

Lip region low with the two circles of labial papillae close together

Thorniidae

52

b

Lip region normal with the two circles of labial papillae well separated

 

22

22

a

Sublabial region sclerotized; lips amalgamated; males with few supplements

Thornenematidae

57

b

Sublabial region not sclerotized; males with variable number of supplements

 

23

23

a

Odontostyle long and slender with small aperture; odontophore surrounded by muscular sheath

Nordiidae

68

b

Odontostyle intermediate length and diameter with large aperture

 

24

24

a

Female tail attenuated to filiform; male tail similar or short

Dorylaimidae

86

b

Both female and male with short tail

 

25

25

a

Odontostyle aperture >1/2 odontostyle length; guiding ring plicated, appears double

Aporcelaimidae

110

b

Odontostyle aperture <1/2 odontostyle length; guiding ring simple

Qudsianematidae

123

26

Actinolaimidae Thorne, 1939

 

 

a

Odontostyle robust, dorylaimoid; cuticle without longitudinal ridges; anterior and posterior parts of esophagus muscular; vulval lips sclerotized; male and female with similar long tails

Trachypleurosinae

27

b

Odontostyle fairly robust, dorylaimoid; cuticle usually smooth; anterior and posterior parts of esophagus muscular; vulval lips sclerotized; male with short, rounded tail; female with long tail

Actinolaiminae

32

c

Odontostyle long and slender; cuticle with longitudinal ridges; anterior part of esophagus non-muscular, mid and and posterior parts muscular; vulval lips not sclerotized; male with short, rounded tail; female with long tail

Brittonematinae

28

27

Trachypleurosinae Thorne, 1939

 

 

a

Stoma with denticles

Trachypleurosum Andrassy, 1959

 

b

Tail differs in male and female, elongate to filiform in female, short and rounded in male

Trachactinolaimus Andrassy, 1963

 

28

Brittonematinae Thorne, 1967

 

 

a

Labial region low; odontostyle fairly robust

Parastomachoglossa Coomans & Loof, 1986

 

b

Labial region normal; odontostyle not robust

 

29

29

a

Cuticle very thick; inner vulval lips wider than vagina

Brasilaimus Zamith & Lordello, 1957

 

b

Cuticle not very thick; inner vulval lips moderately developed

 

30

30

a

Lip region strong and expanded; male tail with filiform extension

Practinocephalus Andrassy, 1974

 

b

Lip region not expanded; male tail without filiform extension

 

31

31

a

Anterior of stoma strong and hexagonal

Afratinca Vinciguerra & Clausi, 2000

 

b

Anterior of stoma thin-walled, circular

Actinca Andrassy, 1964

 

32

Actinolaiminae Thorne, 1939

 

 

a

Cuticle with longitudinal ridges

Actinolaimus Cobb, 1913

 

b

Cuticle without longitudinal ridges

 

33

33

a

Anterior of stoma with 4 sclerotized plates

 

34

b

Anterior of stoma without sclerotized plates

 

35

34

a

Stoma wall with small denticles

Paractinolaimoides Khan. Ahmad & Jairajpuri, 1994

 

b

Stoma wall without denticles

Scleroactinolaimus Ahmad, Khan & Ahmad, 1993

 

35

a

Onchia fused at base

Metactinolaimus Meyl, 1957

 

b

Onchia separate, not fused

 

36

36

a

Anterior stoma walls strongly ribbed, basket-like

Westindicus Thorne, 1967

 

b

Anterior stoma walls not ribbed

 

37

37

a

Anterior stoma wall with denticles

 

38

b

Anterior stoma wall without denticles

 

39

38

a

Male supplements in a linear series

Paractinolaimus Meyl, 1957

 

b

Male supplements in clusters or fascicles

Afractinolaimus Andrassy, 1970

 

39

a

Male supplements in a linear series

 

40

b

Male supplements in clusters or fascicles

 

41

40

a

Anterior part of esophagus muscular

Egtitus Thorne, 1967

 

b

Anterior part of esophagus non-muscular

Stopractinca Khan, Ahmad & Jairajpuri, 1994

 

41

a

Onchia each with two small additional denticles

Neoactinolaimus Thorne, 1967

 

b

Onchia without additional denticles

Mactinolaimus Andrassy, 1970

 

42

Crateronematidae Siddiqi, 1969

 

 

a

Slender nematodes; cuticular pores indistinct; odontostyle very thin with small aperture; females diovarial, amphidelphic; tail conoid to elongate-conoid

Crateronematinae

47

b

Moderately slender nematodes; cuticular pores distinct; odontostyle thick with large aperture, often >1/2 odontostyle length; females monovarial or diovarial; tail short, rounded or elongate-conoid

Lordellonematinae

43

43

Lordellonematinae Siddiqi, 1969

 

 

a

Female reproductive system monovarial, opisthodelphic

Sicorinema Siddiqi, 1969

 

b

Female reproductive system diovarial

 

44

44

a

Cuticle with conspicuous lateral, ventral and dorsal pores

 

45

b

Cuticle without conspicuous pores; odontostyle short and thick with large aperture

Sicorinemella Andrassy, 2009

 

45

a

Odontostyle length about 1x labial width with large aperture,  >1/2 odontostyle length

Moshajia Siddiqi, 1982

 

b

Odontostyle length > 1x labial width with aperture about 1/3 odontostyle length

 

46

46

a

Body slender; tail elongate-conoid

Poronemella Siddiqi, 1969

 

b

Body stout; tail short, conoid

Lordellonema Andrassy, 1959

 

47

Crateronematinae Siddiqi, 1969

 

 

a

Labial region offset from body contour, lips separated; odontostyle thin with small aperture

Crateronema Siddiqi, 1969

 

b

Labial region continuous with body contour, lips amalgamated; odontostyle thin with small aperture

 

48

48

a

Tail elongate-conoid, with distinct papillae in male

Chrysonema Thorne, 1929

 

b

Tail short without distinct papillae

Oonaguntus Thorne, 1974

 

49

Paraxonchiidae Dhanachand & Jairajpuri, 1981

 

 

a

Anterior of body narrowing strongly; neck outline concave; head very small, <1/4 body width at base of esophagus; odontostyle straight or bent dorsally; tail short-conoid or elongate-conoid to filiform

Paraxonchiinae

50

b

Anterior of body narrowing less strongly; neck outline concave; head small, about 1/3 body width at base of esophagus; odontostyle straight; tail short-conoid or conoid-rounded

Gopalinae

51

50

Paraxonchiinae Dhanachand & Jairajpuri, 1981

 

 

a

Odontostyle straight with small aperture

Parapalus Loof & Zullini

 

b

Odontostyle bent dorsally with large aperture

Paraxonchium Krall, 1958

 

51

Gopalinae Andrassy, 2009

 

 

a

Odontostyle length >2x labial width, aperture about 1/4 length of odontostyle

Gopalus Khan, Jairajpuri & Ahmad, 1987

 

b

Odontostyle length about 1x labial width, aperture about 1/2 length of odontostyle

Tendinema Siddiqi, 1995

 

52

Thorniidae De Coninck, 1965

 

 

a

Head with lips amalgamated; two circles of labial papillae separated; odontostyle narrowing posteriorly;  male with gubernaculum

Thorniinae

53

b

Head with lips amalgamated; two circles of labial papillae very close; odontostyle narrowing posteriorly;  male without gubernaculum

Thorneellinae

55

53

Thorniinae De Coninck, 1965

 

 

a

Male spicules short and straight without inner scerotization

 

54

b

Male spicules arcuate with inner scerotization; gubernaculum present

Nygolaimoides Meyl in Andrassy, 1960

 

54

a

Labial region offset from body contour;  6 small liplets within the outer labia

Thorniosa Andrassy, 1996

 

b

Labial region not offset from body contour;  without inset liplets

Thornia Meyl, 1954

 

55

Thorneellinae Andrassy, 1987

 

 

a

Anterior stoma with a sclerotized ring

Loofilaimus Jairajpuri, Ahmad & Sturhan, 1998

 

b

Anterior stoma without sclerotized ring

 

56

56

a

Male with 3-4 supplements

Sphaeroamphis Ahmad & Sturhan, 2000

 

b

Male without supplements

Thorneella Andrassy, 1960

 

57

Thornenematidae Siddiqi, 1969

 

 

a

Female tail elongate; male tail elongate or short, rounded

Thornenematinae

58

b

Female and male tails both short and rounded

Willinematinae

 65

58

Thornenematinae Siddiqi, 1969

 

 

a

Anterior of body narrow, bottle-shaped; amphids small

Lagenonema Andrassy, 1987

 

b

Anterior of body not bottle-shaped; amphids large

 

59

59

a

Female tail attenuated to long; male tail short, round

 

60

b

Tails of males and females similar, either long or short, rounded

 

63

60

a

Female reproductive system monovarial, opisthodelphic

 

61

b

Female reproductive system diovarial, amphidelphic

 

62

61

a

Labial framework and esophageal collar sclerotized

Thornenema Andrassy, 1959

 

b

Labial framework and esophageal collar not sclerotized

Opisthodorylaimus Ahmad & Jairajpuri, 1982

 

62

a

Collar present; male with 15-17 ventromedian supplements, contiguous

Prothornenema Baqri & Bohra, 2003

 

b

Collar absent; male with 10-15 ventromedian supplements, spaced

Coomansinema Ahmad & Jairajpuri, 1989

 

63

a

Tail long in both males and females

 

64

b

Tail short, rounded in both males and females

 

65

64

a

Female reproductive system diovarial, amphidelphic

Sicaguttur Siddiqi, 1971

 

b

Female reproductive system monovarial, opisthodelphic

Indodorylaimus Mehdi Ali & Prabha, 1974

 

65

Willinematinae Andrassy, 1987

 

 

a

Female reproductive system diovarial with both branches equally developed, amphidelphic

 

66

b

Female reproductive system monovarial or monovarial with rudimentary anterior branch, opisthodelphic

 

67

66

a

Body very slender, 2.9-4.6 mm long

Anadorella Siddiqi, 2005

 

b

Body very small, 0.4-0.6 mm long

Paratimminema Rahaman, Ahmad & Khan, 1994

 

67

a

Cephalic framework and collar sclerotized

Sclerolabia Carbonell & Coomans, 1986

 

b

Cephalic framework and collar not sclerotized

Willinema Baqri & Jairajpuri, 1967

 

68

Nordiidae Jairajpuri & Siddiqi, 1964

 

 

a

Odontostyle needle-like, <3x labial width; lips with raised papillae; vulva transverse, usually diovarial, amphidelphic; tail conoid; body length 0.6-2.2 mm

Oriverutinae

69

b

Odontostyle 2-9x labial width; labial papillae not raised; diovarial, amphidelphic or monovarial, opisthodelphic; tail short, conoid or cylindroid; body length 0.4-1.6 mm, usually robust

Nordiinae

69

c

Odontostyle 2-5x labial width; lips with raised papillae;, usually diovarial, amphidelphic; tail rounded or filiform; body length 1-8 mm

Pungentinae

69

69

Pungentinae Siddiqi, 1964

 

 

Oriverutinae Andrassy, 2009

 

 

Nordiinae Jairajpuri & Siddiqi, 1964

 

 

a

Female tail elongate; male tail rounded

Californidorus Robbins & Weiner, 1978

(Pungentinae)

 

b

Tail similar in both sexes, either short or long

 

70

70

a

Head strongly expanded; amphid apertures on lateral lips

Kochinema Heyns, 1963

(Pungentinae)

 

b

Head not expanded; amphid apertures post-labial

 

71

71

a

Odontostyle >3x labial diameter

 

72

b

Odontostyle <3x labial diameter

 

74

72

a

Odontostyle 8-9x labial diameter; posterior of body twisted

Acunemella Andrassy, 2002

(Nordiinae)

 

b

Odontostyle 3-5x labial diameter; posterior of body not twisted

 

73

73

a

Tail cylindroid with broadly-rounded terminus

Thornedia Husain & Khan, 1965

(Nordiinae)

 

b

Tail conoid or conoid-rounded with narrowly-rounded terminus

Longidorella Thorne, 1939

(Nordiinae)

 

74

a

Odontostyle very thin, needle-like, aperture hardly discernible

 

75

b

Odontostyle not needle-like, aperture discernible

 

76

75

a

Female reproductive system diovarial, amphidelphic

Malekus Thorne, 1974

(Oriverutinae)

 

b

Female reproductive system monovarial, opisthodelphic

Oriverutoides Ahmad & Sturhan, 2002

(Oriverutinae)

 

76

a

Tail in both sexes long, filiform

 

77

b

Tail in both sexes short-conoid to elongate-conoid

 

78

77

a

Male with numerous contiguous ventro-median supplements

Lenonchium Siddiqi, 1965

(Pungentinae)

 

b

Male with few, well-spaced,  ventro-median supplements

Enchodorus Vinciguerra, 1976

(Pungentinae)

 

78

a

Lips large, separate, with strongly projecting papillae

 

79

b

Lips not large, papillae not strongly projecting

 

80

79

a

Tail short-conoid, ventrally arcuate

Inbionema Loof & Zullini, 2000

(Oriverutinae)

 

b

Tail elongate-conoid, dorsally arcuate

Oriverutus Siddiqi, 1971

(Oriverutinae)

 

80

a

Stoma with thick, hyaline walls; male with numerous supplements (26-31)

Lanzavecchia Zullini, 1988

(Pungentinae)

 

b

Stoma with thin walls; male with <16 supplements

 

81

81

a

Head rounded, continuous with body contour; tail bent dorsally

Actinolaimoides Meyl, 1957

(Nordiinae)

 

b

Head offset from body contour; tail not bent dorsally

 

82

82

a

Anterior walls of stoma with four sclerotized platelets

 

83

b

Anterior walls of stoma without sclerotized platelets

 

84

83

a

Odontostyle 2-3x labial diameter, very slender, slightly curved; guiding ring double

Pungentus Thorne & Swanger, 1936

(Pungentinae)

 

b

Odontostyle <2x labial diameter, straight; guiding ring simple

Pungentella Andrassy, 2009

(Pungentinae)

 

84

a

Cuticle near vulva strongly wrinkled

Rhyssocolpus Andrassy, 1971

(Pungentinae)

 

b

Cuticle near vulva not wrinkled

 

85

85

a

Tail rounded; posterior male supplements within 1x spicule length of cloaca

Enchodelus Thorne, 1939

(Pungentinae)

 

b

Tail conoid; posterior male supplements > 1x spicule length from cloaca

Heterodorus Altherr, 1952

(Pungentinae)

 

86

Dorylaimidae De Man, 1876

 

 

a

Cuticle smooth; odontostyle moderate; guiding ring narrow; vulva longitudinal, V<50%; spicules simple; male with only 1 or 2 supplements; tails in both sexes filiform; body length 0-8-1.0 mm

Amphidorylaiminae

87

b

Cuticle smooth or with fine transverse striations; odontostyle strong, straight; guiding ring thin; vulva longitudinal, V<50%; spicules dorylaimid; male with numerous supplements; tails in both sexes elongate to filiform; body length up to 5 mm

Prodorylaiminae

87

c

Cuticle smooth or with distinct or longitudinal ridges striations; odontostyle strong, straight >1x labial diameter; guiding ring double; spicules dorylaimid; male with numerous  supplements; tail in female elongate to filiform, short and rounded in male; body length up to 9 mm

Dorylaiminae

87

d

Cuticle smooth or with fine transverse striations; odontostyle medium size; guiding ring simple; spicules dorylaimid; male with numerous supplements; tails differ between sexes, short mamillate or elongate to filiformin female, short and rounded in male; body length usually 1-3mm

Mesodorylaiminae

87

e

Cuticle smooth; odontostyle long and thin; guiding ring simple; vulva usually longitudinal; tails in both sexes similar or dissimilar; body length 0.8- 5 mm

Afrodorylaiminae

87

87

Amphidorylaiminae Andrassy, 1976

 

 

Prodorylaiminae Andrassy, 1969

 

 

Dorylaiminae de Man, 1876

 

 

Mesodorylaiminae Andrassy, 1969

 

 

Afrodorylaiminae Andrassy, 1969

 

 

a

Stoma with sclerotized pieces

Fuscheila Siddiqi, 1982 (Mesodorylaiminae)

 

b

Stoma without sclerotized pieces

 

88

88

a

Monosexual; only females present

Drepanodorylaimus Jairajpuri, 1966

(Afrodorylaiminae)

 

b

Bisexual; males and females present

 

89

89

a

Cuticle with longitudinal ridges

 

90

b

Cuticle without longitudinal ridges

 

92

90

a

Male supplements arranged in two clusters (fascicles)

Ischiodorylaimus Andrassy, 1969

(Dorylaiminae)

 

b

Male supplements arranged in a continuous series

 

91

91

a

Female tail elongate to filiform; guiding ring double

Dorylaimus Dujardin, 1845

(Dorylaiminae)

 

b

Female tail conoid-rounded with short projection; guiding ring simple

Kittydorylaimus Andrassy, 1998

(Mesodorylaiminae)

 

92

a

Tail in both sexes similar, elongate to filiform

 

93

b

Tail in both sexes dissimilar, elongate in female, short and mainly rounded in male

 

97

93

a

Spicule simple, alaimoid, only 1 or 2 supplements

Amphidorylaimus Andrassy, 1960

(Amphidorylaiminae)

 

b

Spicule dorylaimoid, numerous supplements

 

94

94

a

Prerectum very long, 15-25x anal body diameter

Protodorylaimus Andrassy, 1988

(Prodorylaiminae)

 

b

Prerectum much shorter

 

95

95

a

Supplements close together, numbering 13-31

Prodorylaimus Andrassy, 1959

(Prodorylaiminae)

 

b

Supplements spaced, numbering 6-13

 

96

96

a

Body very slender (a about 60); head rounded, continuous with body contour

Kunjudorylaimus Dhanam & Jairajpuri, 2000

(Prodorylaiminae)

 

b

Body less slender; head truncate

Prodorylaimium Andrassy, 1969

(Prodorylaiminae)

 

97

a

Male tail conoid, ventrally arcuate

Afrodorylaimus Andrassy, 1964

(Afrodorylaiminae)

 

b

Male tail rounded

 

98

98

a

Male tail with short terminal peg

Baladorylaimus Andrassy, 2001

(Mesodorylaiminae)

 

b

Male tail without terminal peg

 

99

99

a

Subcuticle strongly striated

Idiodorylaimus Andrassy, 1969

(Dorylaiminae)

 

b

Subcuticle not striated

 

100

100

a

Guiding ring double and high

 

101

b

Guiding ring simple and thin

 

102

101

a

Amphids with very small pore-like aperture

Halodorylaimus Andrassy, 1988

(Dorylaiminae)

 

b

Amphids with wide slit-like aperture

Laimydorus Siddiqi, 1969

(Dorylaiminae)

 

102

a

Body extremely slender, a = 60-90

Chrysodorus Jimenez-Guirado & Cadenas, 1985

(Mesodorylaiminae)

 

b

Body much less slender

 

103

103

a

Paired pre- and post-cloacal papillae of male very strong; sperm small and rounded

 

104

b

Paired pre- and post-cloacal papillae of male very small; sperm fusiform

 

105

104

a

Spicules simple, without inner sclerotization; 4-8 supplements arranged in pairs

Apodorylaimus Andrassy, 1988

(Afrodorylaiminae)

 

b

Spicules with inner sclerotization; 12-18 supplements arranged in a single row

Paradorylaimus Andrassy, 1969

(Afrodorylaiminae)

 

105

a

Four spindle-shaped yellowish spots near base of odontostyle

Crocodorylaimus Andrassy, 1988

(Mesodorylaiminae)

 

b

No spindle-shaped yellowish spots near base of odontostyle

 

106

106

a

Each spicule with a small spur near its distal end; posterior part of male body twisted

Calcaridorylaimus Andrassy, 1969

(Mesodorylaiminae)

 

b

Spicules without spurs; posterior part of male body not twisted

 

107

107

a

Supplements 16-31, arranged in 3 groups: two continuous rows with a few between

Calodorylaimus Andrassy, 1969

(Mesodorylaiminae)

 

b

Supplements in a continuous row

 

108

108

a

Supplements <5, widely spaced

Miodorylaimus Andrassy, 1986

(Mesodorylaiminae)

 

b

Supplements 5-26, closely spaced

 

109

109

a

Body length 2.7-3.3 mm; vulva sunken below body contour

Namaquanema Heyns & Swart, 1993

(Mesodorylaiminae)

 

b

Body length 0.8-2.3 mm; vulva not sunken below body contour

Mesodoylaimus Andrassy, 1959

(Mesodorylaiminae)

 

110

Aporcelaimidae Heyns, 1965

 

 

a

Stoma with mural tooth

Sectonematinae

111

b

Stoma with axial odontostyle

 

113

111

Sectonematinae Siddiqi, 1969

 

 

a

Tooth parallel with body axis

Sectonema Thorne, 1930

 

b

Tooth at an angle to body axis

 

112

112

a

Anterior part of stoma with fine rasp-like denticles

Nygolaimium Thorne, 1930

 

b

Anterior part of stoma without denticles

Scapidens Heyns, 1965

 

113

a

Tail very long and filiform

Aporcedorinae

114

b

Tail short, conoid-rounded or hemispharical

Aporcelaiminae

115

114

Aporcedorinae Andrassy, 2009

 

 

a

Tail very long and filiform

Aporcedorus Jairajpuri & Ahmad, 1983

 

 

b

 

 

 

115

Aporcelaiminae Heyns, 1965

 

 

a

Cuticle with 2 layers that refract light differently

 

116

b

Cuticle layers refract light similarly

 

117

116

a

Male with 2-5 pairs of adcloacal supplements; lip region only slightly offset

Makatinus Heyns, 1965

 

b

Male with only 1 pair of adcloacal supplements; lip region strongly offset

Aporcelaimellus Heyns, 1965

 

117

a

Lip region rounded, lips amalgamated, odontostyle very thick

Acrotonus Thorne, 1974

 

b

Lip region not rounded, lips not or only slightly amalgamated, odontostyle not unusually thick

 

118

118

a

Vestibule heavily sclerotized, anterior of odontostyle thick

Silvallis Jairajpuri & Ahmad, 1985

 

b

Vestibule not sclerotized, anterior of odontostyle normal

 

119

119

a

Odontostyle aperture arched dorsally, vulva cuticle wrinkled, very large nematodes  (7-9.3 mm)

Epacrolaimus Andrassy, 2000

 

b

Odontostyle aperture not arched dorsally, vulva cuticle smooth

 

120

120

a

Aperture 1/3 of odontostyle length, vulva lips not sclerotized

Tubixaba Monteiro & Lordello 1980

 

b

Aperture ½ or greater of odontostyle length, vulva lips usually sclerotized

 

121

121

a

Lip region high, tail conoid and > 1 anal body diameter

Metaporcelaimus Lordello, 1965

 

b

Lip region wide, tail conoid-rounded or hemisperical and < 1 anal body diameter

 

122

122

a

Body large (4-10 mm), vulval lips sclerotized

Aporcelaimus Thorne & Swanger, 1936

 

b

Body around 2 mm, vulval lips not sclerotized

Aporcella Andrassy, 2002

 

123

Qudsianematidae Jairajpuri, 1965

 

 

Discolaiminae Siddiqi, 1969

 

 

Carcharolaiminae Thorne, 1967

 

 

Qudsianematinae Jairajpuri, 1965

 

 

Arctidorylaiminae Mulvey & Anderson, 1979

 

 

Ecumenicinae Andrassy, 2009

 

 

a

Females monovarial, opisthodelphic

 

124

b

Females diovarial, amphidelphic

 

125

124

a

Lip region broadly offset and high; lateral fields with conspicuous glands

Latocephalus Patil & Khan, 1982

(Discolaiminae)

 

b

Lip region normal; lateral fields without glands

Ecumenicus Thorne, 1974

(Ecumenicinae)

 

125

a

Cuticle usually with conspicuous longitudinal ridges

Arctidorylaimus Mulvey & Anderson, 1979

(Arctidorylaiminae)

 

b

Cuticle without longitudinal ridges

 

126

126

a

Head with sclerotized basket-like structure

 

127

b

Head without sclerotized basket-like structure

 

129

127

a

Tail conoid, ventrally arcuate, about 2x abd

Caryboca Lordello, 1967

(Carcharolaiminae)

 

b

Tail conoid-rounded to bluntly rounded, ventrally arcuate, about 1x abd

 

128

128

a

Mouth cavity barrel-shaped and heavily sclerotized posterior to basket-like structure

Caribenema Thorne, 1967

(Carcharolaiminae)

 

b

Mouth cavity simple and slightly sclerotized posterior to basket-like structure

Carcharolaimus Thorne, 1939

(Carcharolaiminae)

 

129

a

Lateral field with numerous conspicuous glandular structures

 

130

b

Lateral field without glandular structures

 

136

130

a

Head with inner sclerotized ring or plate structure

 

131

b

Head without inner sclerotized ring or plate structure

 

132

131

a

Tail conoid, curved ventrally

Mylodiscoides Lordello, 1963

(Discolaiminae)

 

b

Tail bluntly-rounded, short

Mylodiscus Thorne, 1939

(Discolaiminae)

 

132

a

Posterior section of esophagus surrounded by strong spiral-muscle sheath

Salimella Siddiqi, 2005

(Discolaiminae)

 

b

Posterior section of esophagus without spiral-muscle sheath

 

133

133

a

Labial region much wider than adjacent body, sucker-like

 

134

b

Labial region not so wide, not sucker-like

 

135

134

a

Tail elongate filiform

Filidiscolaimus Siddiqi, 1995

(Discolaiminae)

 

b

Tail short,  bluntly rounded or conoid rounded

Discolaimus Cobb, 1913

(Discolaiminae)

 

135

a

Tail elongate, 2-5x abd, prerectum with short blind sac

Discolaimoides Heyns, 1963

(Discolaiminae)

 

b

Tail shorter, <2x abd, prerectum without blind sac

Discolaimium Thorne, 1939

(Discolaiminae)

 

136

a

Male with adcloacal pair of supplements far from cloaca, odontostyle weakly sclerotized

Amblydorylaimus Andrassy, 1998

(Qudsianematinae)

 

b

Male with adcloacal pair of supplements on anterior cloacal lip

 

137

137

a

Oral field somewhat sunken with small inner liplets

 

138

b

Oral field without inner liplets

 

140

138

a

Vulva longitudinal, male with supplements contiguous

Labronema Thorne, 1939

(Qudsianematinae)

 

b

Vulva transverse, male with supplements spaced

 

139

139

a

Odontostyle longer than lip width, tail short and bluntly rounded

Labronemella Andrassy, 1985

(Qudsianematinae)

 

b

Odontostyle as long as lip width, tail elongate conoid

Baqriella Ahmad & Jairajpuri, 1989

(Qudsianematinae)

 

140

a

A single ventromedial supplement

Kallidorylaimus  Andrassy, 1989

(Qudsianematinae)

 

b

Multiple  ventromedial supplements

 

141

141

a

Intestine with very large vesiculose cells

Kolodorylaimus  Andrassy, 1998

(Qudsianematinae)

 

b

Intestine with normal cells

 

142

142

a

Slender and wider parts of esophagus separated by a constriction

Skibbenema Van Reenen & Heyns, 1986

(Qudsianematinae)

 

b

Slender and wider parts of esophagus not separated by a constriction

 

143

143

a

Tail with long, apparently empty, distal part

Boreolaimus Andrassy, 1998

(Qudsianematinae)

 

b

Tail without long, apparently empty, distal part

 

144

144

a

Tail >4x abd (4-8)

Epidorylaimus Andrassy, 1986

(Qudsianematinae)

 

b

Tail <4x abd (1-3)

 

145

145

a

Odontostyle slender and significantly longer that lip width

Dorydorella Andrassy, 1987

(Qudsianematinae)

 

b

Odontostyle not slender and with length close to lip width

 

146

146

a

Males with precloacal space absent and posterior pair of supplements level with spicules

 

147

b

Males with precloacal space present and posterior pair of supplements anterior to spicules

 

148

147

a

Small nematodes (0.3-0.8 mm), esophagus about 1/3 of body length

Microdorylaimus Andrassy, 1986

(Qudsianematinae)

 

b

Larger nematodes (1-3 mm), esophagus about 1/4 of body length

Allodorylaimus Andrassy, 1986

(Qudsianematinae)

 

148

a

Cardia with three gland cells

Torumanawa Yeates, 1967

(Qudsianematinae)

 

b

Cardia without three glands

 

149

149

a

Tail subdigitate

Talanema Andrassy, 1991

(Qudsianematinae)

 

b

Tail conoid or rounded

 

150

150

a

Tail conoid, straight or ventrally arcuate

Eudorylaimus Andrassy, 1959

(Qudsianematinae)

 

a

Tail bluntly rounded

 

151

151

a

Anterior region of esophagus strongly muscular; spermatozoa minute, <0.1 abd

Crassogula Andrassy, 1991

(Qudsianematinae)

 

b

Anterior region of esophagus moderately muscular; spermatozoa minute, 0.2-0.25 abd

 

152

152

a

Head continuous with body contour; lips amalgamated

Scalpellus Ahmad, 2004

(Qudsianematinae)

 

b

Head offset from body contour; lips separate

Crassolabium Yeates, 1967

(Qudsianematinae)

 

153

Longidoroidea Thorne, 1935

 

 

Longidoridae Thorne, 1935

 

 

a

Odontophore with well-developed flanges; dorsal esophageal nucleus larger than subventral nuclei; females diovarial amphidelphic or monovarial opisthodelphic

Xiphinema Cobb, 1913

 

b

Odontophore without flanges or with very small flanges; dorsal esophageal nucleus smaller than subventral nuclei; females diovarial amphidelphic

 

154

154

a

Amphid apertures pore-like, inconspicuous

 

155

b

Amphid apertures slit-like, conspicuous

 

156

155

a

Guiding ring near posterior end of odontostyle; males with few supplements and posterior pair well anterior to spicules

Xiphidorus Monteiro, 1976

 

b

Guiding ring near anterior end of odontostyle; males with several supplements and posterior pair close to spicules

Longidorus Micoletzky, 1922

 

156

a

Amphids pouch-like with bilobed fovea

 

157

b

Amphids funnel or stirrup-shaped, not bilobed

 

158

157

a

Lip region sharply offset from body contour, guiding ring at posterior end of odontostyle

Australodorus Coomans, Olmos, Casella & Chaves, 2004

 

b

Lip region continuous with body contour, guiding ring at anterior end of odontostyle

Longidoroides Khan, Chawla & Saha, 1978

 

158

a

Lip region continuous with body contour

Paralongidorus Siddiqi, Hooper & Khan, 1963

 

b

Lip region sharply offset from body contour

 

159

159

a

Guiding ring at posterior end of odontostyle; males with supplements anterior to spicules

Paraxiphidorus Coomans & Chaves, 1995

 

b

Guiding ring at anterior end of odontostyle; males with posterior supplements closer to spicules

Siddiqia Khan, Chawla & Saha, 1978

 

160

Belondiroidea Thorne, 1939

 

 

a

Odontophore flanged; four sclerotized pieces around oral opening

Dorylaimellidae

162

b

Odontophore rod-like, not flanged; oral opening without sclerotized pieces

 

161

161

a

Tail in both sexes short, conoid- rounded or cylindroid

Belondiridae

165

b

Female tail long and filiform

Swangeriidae

183

162

Dorylaimellidae Jairajpuri, 1964

 

 

a

Females monovarial, prodelphic

 

163

b

Females diovarial, amphidelphic or, rarely, monovarial, opisthodelphic

 

164

163

a

Vulva longitudinal; tail filiform

Ibadamus Siddiqi, 1983

 

b

Vulva transverse; tail short, rounded

Mesodorylaimus Jairajpuri & Ahmad, 1980

 

164

a

Tail cylindroid or clavate with thick terminal cuticle; vulva transverse

Axodorylaimellus Jairajpuri & Ahmad, 1980

 

b

Tail without thick terminal cuticle; vulva transverse; vulva longitudinal

Dorylaimellus Cobb, 1913

 

165

Belondiridae Thorne, 1939

 

 

a

Lip region simple or with small liplets, continuous with body contour;  anterior and posterior esophageal regions not separated by a constriction; posterior region of esophagus with spiral muscle sheath; tail in both sexes short and rounded

Belondirinae

166

b

Lip region without liplets;  anterior and posterior esophageal regions separated by a narrowing or deep constriction; posterior region of esophagus with straight rather than spiral muscle sheath; tail in both sexes short

Axonchiinae

175

166

Belondirinae Thorne, 1939

 

 

a

Females monovarial

 

167

b

Females diovarial

 

170

167

a

Females prodelphic

Probelondira Andrassy, 2009

 

b

Females opisthodelphic

 

168

168

a

Lip region with mammiform papillae

Axonchoides Thorne, 1967

 

b

Lip region rounded, without mammiform papillae

 

169

169

a

Anterior slender part of esophagus 2/3 of esophagus length; male with 11 supplements

Immanigula Andrassy, 1991

 

b

Anterior slender part of esophagus about 1/2 of esophagus length; male with 1-2 supplements

Belondira Thorne, 1939

 

170

a

Muscular esophageal sheath with muscle bundles twisted sinistrally (to the left side)

 

171

b

Muscular esophageal sheath with muscle bundles straight or twisted dextrally (to the right side)

 

172

171

a

Male without supplements

Amphibelondira Rahman, Jairajpuri, Ahmad & Ahmad, 1987

 

b

Male with 5-7 supplements

Helicobelondira Yeates, 1973

 

172

a

Lip region with small perioral liplets; tail clavate

Belondirella Thorne, 1964

 

b

Lip region rounded; tail not clavate

 

173

173

a

Lip region continuous with body contour

Porternema Suryawanshi, 1972

 

b

Lip region offset from body contour

 

174

174

a

Oral opening with small platelets; odontostyle thick

Belaxellus Thorne, 1974

 

b

Oral opening without platelets; odontostyle slender

Bullaenema Sauer, 1968

 

175

Axonchiinae Thorne, 1964

 

 

a

Female diovarial, amphidelphic

Anchobelondira Nair & Coomans, 1971

 

b

Female monovarial, opisthodelphic

 

176

176

a

Esophagus very long, > 1/2 body length

Nimigula Andrassy, 1985

 

b

Esophagus shorter than 1/2 body length

 

177

177

a

Odontostyle slender with length 2x lip width

Heynsaxonchium Coomans & Nair, 1975

 

b

Odontostyle fusiform with length about 1x lip width

 

178

178

a

Tail subdigitate

Dactyluraxonchium Coomans & Nair, 1975

 

b

Tail hemispherical or conoid

 

179

179

a

Spicules very long and slender, not typical dorylaimoid

 

180

b

Spicules normal, more typical dorylaimoid

 

181

180

a

Vagina strongly inclined to the posterior; male with 4-6 supplements

Uniqaxonchium Dhanam & Jairajpuri, 1998

 

b

Vagina moderately inclined to the posterior; male with 2 supplements

Phallaxonchium Jairajpuri & Dhanachand, 1979

 

181

a

Lip region continuous with body contour; lips amalgamated

Syncheilaxonchium Coomans & Nair, 1975

 

b

Lip region offset from body contour; lips separate

 

182

182

a

Vulval lips sclerotized

Metaxonchium Coomans & Nair, 1975

 

b

Vulval lips not sclerotized

Axonchium Cobb, 1920

 

183

Swangeriidae Jairajpuri, 1964

 

 

a

Female and male tails dissimilar, long in female, short and rounded in male

Roqueinae

184

b

Female and male tails similar, filiform in both sexes

 

185

184

Roqueinae Thorne, 1964

 

 

a

Odontostyle very slender; muscular sheath of posterior esophageal region  twisted to the left (sinistral)

Lindseyus Ferris & Ferris, 1973

 

b

Odontostyle thick, fusiform; muscular sheath of posterior esophageal region  twisted to the right (dextral)

Roqueus Thorne, 1974

 

185

a

Odontostyle with a small dorsal projection at posterior end of its aperture; dorsal esophageal gland located near middle of posterior esophageal region

Falcihastinae

186

 

b

Odontostyle without dorsal projection; dorsal esophageal gland located near anterior of posterior esophageal region

Swangeriinae

189

186

Falcihastinae Siddiqi, 1968

 

 

a

Expanded posterior of esophagus about 1/4 of esophagus length

 

187

b

Expanded posterior of esophagus >= 1/2of esophagus length

 

188

187

a

Lip region conoid, asymmetrical