Return to Anguina
Anguina Scopoli, 1777
Type species of the genus: Anguina tritici
(Steinbuch, 1799) Filipjev, 1936
Anguillulina (Anguina) (Scopoli, 1777)
Anguillulina (Gervais and Van Beneden, 1869)
Nothanguina (Whitehead, 1959) Vibrio tritici Steinbuch,
First recorded plant parasite
(Needham, 1743) - second stage juveniles of A. tritici.
Turbeville Needham, microscope, seed galls/smutty wheat, he thought he saw spontaneous generation.
Quote from Needham (Christie,
p. 185) - letter to Royal Society published in Philosophical Transactions of
Genus contains first 3 recorded
Current species list:
Type species A. tritici (Steinbuch,
1799) Chitwood, 1935 (??? check authorities)
[Ref: Fortuner and Maggenti, Rev. Nematol. 10(2):163-176 (1987).]
Occurs throughout the world; easily
disseminated in seed.
Nematodes in the genus Anguina are obligate, specialized
parasites of grasses and cereals. They cause necrosis, swelling, deformation,
distortion or galls on leaves, stems, inflorescences, or roots.
Gall formation results from plant cell hypertrophy and hyperplasia that
is triggered by the nematode feeding. As the age in the adult stage, the
vermiform bodies of young females become obese and motionless.
Nematodes of the second juvenile stage in this genus can survive for lon
periods of time in a cryptobiotic state that survives long periods of
desiccation or freezing or both. Some can remain viable for more than 25
years in this cryptobiotic state. Thus, many species can parasitize
above-ground plant parts and are found in semi-arid environments with hot,
dry summers, and revive to the infective stage with seasonal rains (Schenck,
2022; Subbotin and Riley, 2012).
Three species, Anguina
agrostis, tritici, and
funesta, induce seed galls on some cereals
and grasses and are considered of economic importance as agricultural and
quarantine pests (Chizhov and Subbotin 1990; Schenck, 2022).
Endoparasites; all species
produce galls on plant leaves, shoots or seeds, especially on grasses.
Related to development of host.
In seed gall forms, developing seed is converted to a nematode feeding
site. Galls do not germinate as seeds.
The galls induced by several Anguina spp. become exploited to
bacteria such as Rathayibacter. The bacteria may be toxic to grazing
animals and humans (for example, see Anguina
agrostis and A. tritici).
Brzeski, M. W. 1981. The
genera of Anguinidae (Nematoda, Tylenchida).
Rev. Nematol. 4:23-34.
Chizhov, V. N., and Subbotin, S. A. 1990. [Plant-parasitic nematodes of the
subfamily Anguininae (Nematoda, Tylenchida). Morphology, trophic
specialization, system.] Zool. Zh. 69:15-26 (in Russian).
Fortuner and Maggenti, Rev. Nematol. 10(2):163-176
Schenck, H.J. 2022.California Pest Rating Proposal
for Anguina pacificae Cid del Prado Vera & Maggenti 1984 Pacific shoot-gall
nematode. CDFA, Sacramento, California, USA.
Subbotin, S. A., and I. T. Riley. 2012. Stem and gall
nematodes. In Practical Plant Nematology (book) Edited by R. H.
Manzanilla-Lopez and N. Marbï¿½n-Mendoza. Biblioteca Basica de Agricultura, p.