Female: Cephalic region offset usually with 5 annules,
forming an low cone generally with flattened sides. Basal annule
with 32-36 longitudinal striations
seen in face view. Cephalic framework yellowish, massive,
differing in details between sexes.
Stylet knobs with anteriorly directed
glands with 3 nuclei.
about 2 annules
long, situated just anterior to excretory pore
which is near level of esophago-intestinal valve.
about 5 annules posterior to pore, caudalid about 8 annules anterior
Ovaries outstretched, spermathecae
round to oval. Epiptygma
single or double, usually conspicuous.
Intestine overlapping rectum and usually extending
Tail rounded, with 10-16 annules.
field with 4 incisures, usually
areolated, but occasionally only
Male: Cephalic region higher and less conoid
than female, hemispherical with convex sides. Similar to female
in other respects.
40-52 µm long, slightly arcuate.
with titillae; gubernaculum may be bent distally in some
[Ref: CIH Descriptions of Plant-parasitic Nematodes, Set 2, No. 24
Reported median body size for this species (Length mm; width micrometers; weight micrograms) - Click:
Widely distributed in the U.S., especially on woody or graminaceous plants.
Feeding occurs in root cortex of both lateral and mycorrhizal short roots,
where the nematode causes considerable damage in its migration parallel to the
In root cortex of cotton, nematode prefers phloem.
Damage to vascular tissue is more extensive than to cortex, abnormal division
of phloem parenchyma or tylose production in the xylem sometimes occurring in
Cotton, pine, oak, sycamore, wheat, carnation, cranberry, grasses, sugarcane,
clover, vetch, grape, peach; highly pathogenic on turfgrass in Florida.
Few aspects of biology and life-history have been investigated.
Population increase has been studied on cotton (Krusberg & Sasser,
1956), cranberry (Bird & Jenkins, 1964), and bermuda grass (Di Edwardo,
Population dynamics has been investigated in other grasses and legumes (McGlohon
et al., 1961), red pine seedbeds following chemical treatment (Sutherland &
Adams, 1966), and cotton following Paspalum notatum (Rodriguez-Kabana
& Pearson, 1972).
Hoplolaimus galeatus damage (right) to roots of
St. Augustine's grass (University of Florida photograph).
Note loss of feeder roots.
Infected cotton plants grown under conditions of limited moisture are
susceptible to stunting, yellowing, and defoliation.
In cotton, the nematode feeds primarily endoparasitically causing
considerable cortical damage during penetration.
Infected pine seedlings are devoid of healthy lateral roots and mycorrhizae.
High nematode population levels can reduce root weight of Pinus clausa by
54% (Ruehle, 1972). Pine seedlings can suffer 50% mortality.
In sycamore, high inoculum levels caused extensive root necrosis and marked
decrease in fresh weight.
After 75 days, peach seedlings growing in soil infected with Fusarium
oxysporum and H. galeatus were markedly smaller than controls
or combinations of fungus and other nematode species tested (Wehunt &
Hoplolaimus galeatus damage on St. Augustine's
grass (University of Florida photograph)
Hoplolaimus galeatus damage on Bermuda grass
(University of Florida photograph)
Fumigants - pre-plant treatment of plant rows with 1,3-Dichloropropene
(1,3-D) produced taller pine trees after 5 years than trees growing in untreated
Treatment with Nemacur
gave 3 months' field control on bermuda grass.
Population can be reduced, but not eliminated, if infested soils are left fallow
for 16 months.
Host Plant Resistance, Non-hosts and Crop Rotation alternatives:
CIH Descriptions of Plant-parasitic Nematodes, Set 2, No. 24 (1973)]